Enablers to help overcome the barriers In class, exploring alternatives for better choices Resources showing fat content and links between diseases and diet Supporting each other to make changes. This may give other schools the confidence to go for this alternative. Students will explore how sharing attitudes, values, and actions when preparing food together contributes to an environment that promotes and supports healthy food and beverage choices. At least 12 hours after last low level. Te Kete Ipurangi Navigation:
This is largely due to the variation in the fat content, as the fat of the milk received by the infant increases as the feed progresses. Mature milk continues to provide immune factors and other important non-nutritional components to the infant. What are the nutrients in breastmilk? Breastmilk contains all the nutrients the infant needs for proper growth and development.
Fats — Essential fatty acids and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids Carbohydrates — The principal carbohydrate of human milk is lactose. Minerals, vitamins, and trace elements. Composition of some of the key nutrients found in breastmilk Component Mean value for mature breastmilk per mL Energy kJ Energy kcal 67 Protein g 1. What are the other components of breastmilk?
Secretory IgA — Predominant immunoglobulin in breast milk Bioactive cytokines — Including transforming growth factor-b TGF-b 1 and 2 and interleukin IL ] Others — leukocytes, oligosaccharides, lysozyme, lactoferrin, adiponectin, interferon-g, epidermal growth factor EGF and insulin-like growth factor IGF How long should an infant be exclusively fed breastmilk?
How long should the infant continue to be fed breastmilk? View printable PDF version References: American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Nutrition. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics; American Academy of Pediatrics, Policy Statement.
A related product is defined in the Medicines Act A related product is a cosmetic or dentifrice or food in respect of which a claim is made that the substance or article is effective for a therapeutic purpose. It does not include any medicine. A product that is used "wholly or principally" for a therapeutic purpose is a medicine. A related product has a therapeutic purpose that is not its principal purpose e.
Many products at the food-therapeutic product interface are likely to be related products e. The standards can be downloaded from www. Dietary supplements are regulated under the Food Act and are subject to the Dietary Supplements Regulations administered by Medsafe.
These regulations specify a number of requirements for dietary supplements relating to matters such as composition, labelling and maximum permitted daily doses for many vitamins and minerals. A product is a cosmetic if it is used to beautify, cleanse or protect the hair, skin. This group standard includes lists of chemicals whose use in cosmetics is restricted. It is available from www.
Refer also to regulations 22, 24 and of the Medicines Regulations for requirements that apply to cosmetics. Psychoactive substances are regulated under the Psychoactive Substances Act This act contains the definition of psychoactive substances. Further information is available at psychoactives. A therapeutic type dose form is a presentation of the product in a form generally used in pharmaceuticals such as tablets, capsules and controlled amounts of oral liquids or powders.
A product is considered a supplemented food if it is represented as a food that has a substance or substances added to it or that has been modified in some way to perform a physiological role beyond the provision of nutritive requirement. These guidelines are designed to help early childhood education services, schools, and their communities develop environments that support healthy eating in all aspects of their operations. They outline ways of developing policies and procedures about food and beverages provided on site and for promoting strong consistent messages about healthy eating.
Research has shown that poor nutrition can be associated with lower academic achievement and poor school attendance. It is part of the role of early childhood education services and schools to provide an environment where students learn, and this includes learning to make healthy food choices. Early childhood education and school settings provide numerous and diverse opportunities for children and young people to make decisions about food, which is why it is important that these environments are structured to promote and support healthy eating.
These guidelines are designed to help early childhood education services and schools to develop food and nutrition policies and practice and are supported by the Food and Beverage Classification System developed by the Ministry of Health.
The Food and Beverage Classification System provides a framework to help early childhood education services and schools make decisions about the healthy foods and beverages they provide. See appendix 1 for further details. Food and Nutrition for Healthy, Confident Kids encourages the whole education community to get involved in creating a positive environment that supports making healthy food choices.
Many early childhood education services and schools are already encouraging healthy eating practices and will need to make few changes. Early childhood education services and schools should take into account any regulations that govern food and nutrition and food hygiene as part of the process of reviewing policies and practices. Nutrition is fundamental to developing a sense of well-being and to meeting the growth, development, and activity needs of healthy, confident children and young people.
Readiness to learn is enhanced when the learners are well nourished. If children are malnourished, have nutritional deficiencies, or are obese, then their learning is likely to be affected. Numerous studies in New Zealand and overseas have demonstrated a link between nutrition and learning, and shown the beneficial effects of restoring nutrition to appropriate levels A number of research studies now provide credible evidence that effective education about nutrition can motivate and enable children and young people to make food choices that contribute to healthy lifestyles.
In order to adapt their eating habits, children and young people need opportunities to prepare and taste new foods. Learning the practical skills of cooking can help people become critically aware and rely less on pre-prepared foods that are likely to be high in fat, sugar, and salt. Communities, schools, and parents can work together to help students develop attitudes and skills to make consistent health-related choices.
Food tastes develop at an early age, and encouraging healthy choices early in life can help to create lifelong preferences for healthy foods. Most do not eat food just because of its nutritional value.
The many interrelated factors affecting what children choose to eat makes it important for them to be able to access accurate knowledge and information about food and nutrition. The following research findings may help early childhood education services and schools to identify priorities when implementing their food and nutrition policy.
The survey identified that one in five children were overweight and one in ten were obese, and as children got older, their diets became less healthy. For example, younger children ate fruit more often, consumed less sugar and sweets, and had a lower rate of overweight and obesity than older children. The quality of school-produced food is most critical for children who buy food from the school canteen on a regular basis. This evidence is supported by results from the national nutrition survey Ministry of Health, conducted on people 15 years and over.
These showed that only two out of five to year-olds met the recommended number of daily vegetable servings and less than two out of five boys aged 15—18 met the recommended number of daily fruit servings per day. Therefore, adolescents are especially likely to benefit from a healthy food and nutrition environment at school. Many early childhood education services and schools are already aware of the important links between food, health, and learning and are taking steps to improve the food and nutrition environment, for example, by providing a pleasant environment in which food and beverages are consumed and by giving consistent, accurate, messages about food.
Children and young people may spend a large proportion of their waking day in early childhood education services or at school. Approximately one-third of their daily food intake is consumed on the premises, and the proportion may be higher for some young children attending all-day early childhood education services. This makes it important that the whole education community is aware of and supports policies guiding food and beverage choices.
The foods and beverages available in the education environment can influence what children eat. However, the majority of children 84 percent brought their lunches to school. Policies about what is sold or served on the premises can help to ensure that healthy choices are available. Such policies can provide a framework for all staff and suppliers of food and beverages in education settings and can include requirements governing safety and hygiene.
Choices about food and beverages can have an impact on the wider environment as well as on health. Cooking food from scratch can save money and resources because others are not being paid to prepare, package, transport, and advertise the meals.
Food prepared using fresh ingredients is also healthier and more nutritious. Cooking can be a creative and socially important activity. Research shows that when families eat meals together, children are more likely to achieve at school and have fewer health problems. Teaching and learning opportunities that encourage eating food together can provide opportunities to involve communities. Adopting the principles of sustainability can also encourage community support, help use local resources, and provide further insight into the impact of choices about food and beverages.
The process of developing or reviewing a food and nutrition policy enables an early childhood education service or school to arrive at a shared philosophy about all aspects of food and beverages sold or served on the premises. A food and nutrition policy provides guidance for the licensee and manager in early childhood education services, or board and principal in schools, about food and nutrition in their learning environments.
Developing the policy is their responsibility, in consultation with the community. A policy statement could be as follows. Food and nutrition education is an integral part of a comprehensive health education programme. All young people need to be able to make food and beverage choices based on their cultural preferences and on sound knowledge and information.
Children and young people need to understand the importance of food and nutrition to all aspects of their health and well-being, including their mental, physical, and emotional health. They can also influence the eating patterns of others in their environment. Being able to prepare, cook, and serve food is an important part of making choices about food. Being able to cook enables young people to have more control over what they eat.
Preparing and cooking food provides opportunities to taste new foods and to understand the composition of food and the way ingredients behave during cooking. It enables the transfer of knowledge in real contexts, for example, by using numeracy when calculating ingredients, budgeting, or interpreting food labels. Students can also develop their creativity and experience a sense of accomplishment. Sharing food with others can help develop social skills.
A number of teaching and learning approaches have brought about improvements in eating habits. The focus is on providing experiences that can help children learn how to stay healthy and how to develop self-help and self-care skills.
Children can develop working theories about nutrition, for example, they may begin to develop skills in food preparation, to develop knowledge of healthy food choices, and to understand the cultural importance of certain foods. The food and nutrition key area of learning in Health and Physical Education in the New Zealand Curriculum states that students:.
Ministry of Education, , page Best-practice teaching and learning about food and nutrition includes opportunities to critically evaluate the techniques and approaches used to influence food choices.
Through curriculum-based teaching and learning, using health promotion approaches, students can develop the knowledge and skills to take action about their own food choices and to have a positive influence on those of others.
The underlying concepts of Health and Physical Education in the New Zealand Curriculum and The New Zealand Curriculum guide approaches to food and nutrition in schools and provide a framework for teaching and learning. In relation to Food and Nutrition for Healthy, Confident Kids, these dimensions can be described as follows.
Taha tinana, or physical well-being, includes food consumed for physical health, growth, and development; a balance of the required nutrients; and adequate hydration. Taha hinengaro, or mental and emotional well-being, encompasses the cultural traditions and mental and emotional influences on food choice. Spiritual well-being, or taha wairua, can include the specific meanings food conveys to individuals.
Children and young people can use strategies and actions designed to improve health and quality of life by:. Working in the context of health promotion enables young people to experience making autonomous decisions about food that can enhance their own health and that of others.
When they make decisions for themselves, they are much more likely to develop a commitment to choosing healthy food and a balanced and varied diet based on wise food choices. Teaching and learning approaches that encourage student involvement in health-promoting approaches can be found in the chapter Teaching and Learning.
Taking a socio-ecological perspective helps young people understand how the aspects of well-being are influenced by social and environmental factors and by other people. For example, choices about food and beverages can be shaped or influenced by factors such as advertising, ethnic or cultural traditions, food costs, and the food available.
See the Competencies section in this chapter. Curriculum-based teaching and learning encourages students to acknowledge the diverse ways in which people meet their needs for food and nutrition and to develop their own attitudes, values, and commitment to making healthy food choices.
Health promotion processes that involve children and young people in making choices about what is sold or served can encourage their commitment to consuming healthier foods. Health promotion processes provide a framework for young people to use as they become competent in activities centred on addressing food and nutrition issues.
Involving young people in identifying or selecting issues to address gives them a greater sense of purpose and ownership.
When an issue has been agreed on, young people can engage in the action learning process. Visualise how things could be, including how to engage stakeholders, to help consider what improvements could be made to available food.
Determine what is possible and identify what could help students to achieve their goal enablers and what could hinder them barriers.
Evaluate and identify what students have learned from the experience and consider further issues that may arise. Young people involved in health-promoting approaches also adopt a socio-ecological perspective, developing and applying a range of competencies. Food and nutrition is one of the key knowledge bases underpinning food technology. Young people can develop their technological literacy in the context of food technology. For example, students can:. Within technological practice, students learn to use empowering processes.
Students can develop and adapt foods that are enjoyable and healthy for sale in the school. Teaching young people the techniques of testing and evaluating food helps develop their powers of description. They can come to understand how subjective qualities are used in evaluative studies to ensure different markets are catered for.
Children and young people also have opportunities to develop understandings of and tolerance for the specific needs of others, such as those following vegetarian or gluten-free diets or diets determined by religious beliefs. Teaching and learning about food and nutrition needs to include opportunities to critically evaluate the techniques and approaches used to influence food and beverage choices.
Many learning materials and prepared programmes on food and nutrition are available to support teaching and learning. Some are specifically for the use of the classroom teacher, some are for teacher reference, and some are for young people to use.