Nutrition Research Database Provides Nutrition Reports for Foods and Supplements
An estimated — vitamin A-deficient children become blind every year, and half of them die within 12 months of losing their sight. Global Targets to improve maternal, infant and young child nutrition. Low status restricts women's capacity to act in their own and their children's best interests. A number above or below this reference range can give valuable diagnostic information about body systems. Protein status tests Test What it is Higher with Lower with Albumin and globulin These are proteins made in the liver and released into the blood. Vitamin A deficiency is a public health problem in more than half of all countries, especially those in Africa and South-East Asia, most severely affecting young children and pregnant women in low-income countries.
Canadian Malnutrition Task Force is preventing, detecting and treating malnutrition in Canadians, visit: Malnutrition Task Force is addressing avoidable and preventable malnutrition in older people, visit: The related PEN content was reviewed and updated accordingly: Recommendation The Mediterranean dietary pattern is recommended to lower the risk of cardiovascular disease CVD. When the 1, participants were excluded from the analysis, the risk of major CVD events was: For individual components, only stroke risk was significantly reduced Med diets combined HR, 0.
Effects on blood lipids were not reported. The study reports on clinical outcomes based on an analysis of 94, participants from 18 countries. Participants were aged 35 to 70 years and did not have cardiovascular disease at baseline. The validity of the results has been questioned by others 2,3 for two main reasons. First, this is an observational study based on community averages and not on individual data ecologic study design. See Additional PEN content: Breakthrough of Science or Marketing?
A2 milk will soon be available for purchase in the United States. National implementation of the international code. WHO plan to eliminate industrially-produced trans -fatty acids from global food supply. Saturated fatty acid and trans-fatty intake for adults and children Guidelines: Read for more information.
Guidance to promote breastfeeding in health facilities. Global nutrition monitoring framework: Operational guidance for tracking progress in meeting targets for Read more about the operational guidance.
Latest publications The state of food security and nutrition in the world Capture the moment - Early initiation of breastfeeding: Nutrition seminars Enabling women to breastfeed through better policies and programmes Come and join us to celebrate World Breastfeeding Week Monday, 6 August Multimedia Infographics on child overweight and obesity 5 keys to a healthy diet Double burden of malnutrition: Ferritin Reflects body iron stores and is the most reliable indicator of total body iron status other than testing bone marrow.
May also be a marker of inflammation if elevated. Iron overload, iron supplements, inflammatory disease, liver disease, leukemia, hyperthyroidism, renal diseases, age, meat consumption. Carbon dioxide This reflects the acid status of blood.
They have a role in the immune response. When the body is damaged, they increase. WBCs produce, transport, and distribute antibodies as well. Viral infections, bacterial infections, hypersplenism, bone marrow depression, bone marrow disorders, pernicious anemia, AM hours, improper blood draw hemoconcentration. Neutrophils The most abundant white blood cells that destroy bacteria in the body.
Bacterial infection, inflammation, metabolic intoxications, drugs, hemorrhage, hemolytic anemia, myeloproliferative disease, malignant neoplasms, stress, labor, menstruation, steroid use. Stem cell disorder, infections, drug use, anemia, chemotherapy, some drugs, temperature changes. Basophils Involved in parasitic infections and some allergic disorders. Infection, hyperthyroidism, stress, steroids, chemotherapy, radiation.
Eosinophils Usually involved with allergic disorders and parasitic infections. Allergies, asthma, tapeworm, endocrine disorders, myeloproliferative disorders, infections, skin diseases, GI diseases, aspirin sensitivity, poisons, stress, PM hours.
Lymphocytes Involved with viral infections like measles, chickenpox and mononucleosis. Chemotherapy, radiation, steroid treatment, aplastic anemia, malignancies, immune disorders, tuberculosis, renal failure, heart failure. Monocytes Help to combat severe infections. Prednisone, hairy cell leukemia, HIV, bone marrow injury. Red blood cell tests Test What it is Higher with Lower with Red blood cells These are the most common cells found in blood.
They carry oxygen from the lungs to body cells and transfer carbon dioxide from the cells to the lungs. They lack a nucleus, which allows more room to store hemoglobin, the oxygen binding protein. Anemia is a condition in which there is a reduction of circulating red blood cells, the amount of hemoglobin, or the volume of packed cells hematocrit. Polycythemia vera, renal disease, tumors, high altitude, cardiovascular disease and dehydration, pregnancy, some drugs.
Hemoglobin Gives red blood cells their color. Necessary for transferring oxygen and carbon dioxide. Polycythemia vera, heart failure, COPD, pregnancy, recent blood transfusions, changes in fluid intake, high altitude, lots of exercise. Anemia iron deficiency, pernicious, etc. Hematocrit The percentage of red blood cells in relation to total blood volume. Erythrocytosis, polycythemia vera, shock, altitude, pregnancy, dehydration. Anemia, leukemia, lymphoma, adrenal insufficiency, blood loss, hemolytic reactions.
Mean corpuscular volume MCV Determines cell size and can help to classify anemia. Microcytic anemias are usually due to disorders of iron metabolism, heme synthesis, and globin synthesis. Macrocytic anemias are usually due to vitamin B12 or folate deficiency. Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration MCHC Measures average concentration of hemoglobin in red blood cells. Helps with monitoring therapy for anemia.
Iron deficiency, blood loss. Mean corpuscular hemoglobin MCH Measures average weight of hemoglobin per red blood cell. Helps to diagnose severely anemic patients. Red cell size distribution width RDW Indicates the degree of red blood cell size variations. This test can be altered with alcohol consumption. Iron deficiency, vitamin B12 deficiency, folate deficiency. Platelets These are the smallest of the formed elements in blood.
They help to stop bleeding by forming clots and assist in vessel integrity. A mean platelet volume MPV can help determine bleeding disorders. Leukemia, polycythemia vera, splenectomy, iron deficiency anemia, asphyxiation, rheumatoid arthritis, infections, lymphomas, inflammatory bowel disease, renal failure, altitude, exercise, birth control medications, winter, lots of excitement.
Pernicious anemia, blood transfusions, infections, heart failure, thrombopoietin deficiency, chemotherapy, HIV, alcohol, renal insufficiency, before menstruation, pregnancy. Miscellaneous tests Test What it is Higher with Lower with Cortisol A glucocorticosteroid of the adrenal cortex that influences metabolism of proteins, fats, and carbs.
LDH An enzyme found in many organs and tissues. When cells are growing or membranes are damaged, this enzyme can leak into circulation. Anything that damages the blood sample can increase this value including improper handling of the blood specimen. Monitored after a heart attack. Not significant — sometimes noticed with high supplemental doses of vitamin C.
Uric acid End product of purine metabolism. What remains goes to GI tract and is degraded. Mishaps with blood draws If blood is drawn from your arm after the tourniquet is on for several minutes, values can be skewed because cells will concentrate in the lower arm.
If the needle used is too small, it can cause red blood cells to break, leading to a skewed analysis. If you tense up excessively during a blood draw, you can experience extensive bruising at the site.
Summary and recommendations Getting annual blood work with a physician is a good idea for preventative health. Eat, move, and live… better. References Click here to view the information sources referenced in this article. Recommended For You For Women. Cholesterol is necessary for building brain and nerve cells, along with various hormones.
Cholestasis, nephritic syndrome, chronic renal failure, hypothyroidism, alcoholism, a diet high in cholesterol and fat, obesity, pregnancy. This compound carries cholesterol to body cells from the liver. These are surface proteins of lipoprotein particles. This is another sub-fraction of cholesterol. This compound carries cholesterol from cells back to the liver. An amino acid found in small amounts in the blood resulting from the synthesis of cysteine from methionine.
If the bile duct is blocked cholestasis , this enzyme gets backed up and spills into the bloodstream. A cholestatic liver enzyme. An enzyme found mainly in the liver, heart, and muscles — organs with high metabolic activity.
This is a normal, yellow fluid metabolic by-product of red blood cell breakdown that must be cleared by the liver. The end product of protein metabolism. This is a metabolic by-product of muscle metabolism that must be filtered by the kidneys. Urea is a waste product of protein metabolism eliminated from the body through urine, feces, and perspiration. The thyroid has large hormone storage potential and a slow rate of turnover. T3 has three iodine atoms attached and more metabolic action than T4, but the effect is short lived.
This only makes up a small fraction of total T4. T4 has four atoms of iodine attached. If the body is under stress it may convert T4 into rT3 reverse T3 , an inactive form of T3. Responsible for the development of male secondary sex characteristics and sex drive in both men and women.
A growth factor produced by the liver and muscles directly in response to growth hormone. A hormone secreted by the pituitary gland in response to exercise, deep sleep, hypoglycemia, glucagon, insulin and vasopressin. An androgen that can be metabolized into testosterone or estrogen.
An important estrogen involved with sexual development. A screening recommended for males 40 years or older. Insulin is a hormone secreted by the pancreas in response to increases in blood sugar, usually following a meal. These are proteins made in the liver and released into the blood. The amount of vitamin D that has been produced in the body from sun, food and supplements. This lab is not a good indicator of vitamin D status, as it has a short half life of only 15 hours and levels in the blood are regulated tightly by hormones and minerals.
Also known as anti-pernicious anemia factor. Needed for normal cell function. Two elements tightly regulated in the body by the parathyroid gland, kidney and vitamin D. An electrolyte necessary for fluid balance and cellular activity. Electrolyte important for muscles.
Electrolyte regulated by the kidneys and adrenal glands. This mineral is necessary for red blood cells and is the basis of hemoglobin. A transport protein largely synthesized by the liver that regulates iron absorption. Reflects body iron stores and is the most reliable indicator of total body iron status other than testing bone marrow. These come in many different shapes and sizes.
The most abundant white blood cells that destroy bacteria in the body. Usually involved with allergic disorders and parasitic infections.