Originally a local form of Horus as Behdet in the Delta region. The ventriculus may also become more mushy and less muscular. Male's song is a dry, rapid trill similar to the chipping sparrow's song. Blavatsky who was quoted above. A couple of marbled godwits on their breeding grounds flew hundreds of meters across a large field apparently to investigate us, circled us once or twice while calling and then flew back to where they came from. The picture to the left show the blood feathers on a baby parrot.
About hydroponic vegetable production
The main concern is to hydrate the subject until the source of his problem can be determined. Sour Crop and Slow Crop. These conditions will be observed only in a parrot baby that is still handfeeding. Each may be the cause of the other. A baby's crop must empty completely at least once in a 24 hour period.
If the crop is slow to empty, the soft food in the crop will begin to grow bacteria, and sour. A sour crop will cause digestion to be slow, and, therefore, cause a slow crop.
Although, a slow crop may be caused by a number of different problems, which will be described in the following topics, in every case, the condition will elevate bacterial growth, and possibly sour crop.
If a baby's crop does not empty in a 24 hour period, it must be emptied in order to prevent further complications. This may be done with a piece of plastic tubing used for aquarium air line, or the baby may be held with his head lower than his body and the soured food massaged from the crop, through the esophagus, and out of the mouth.
The latter method has a higher risk of aspirating the baby if he breathes food into his lungs in his panic while being turned upside down. The first method may be risky if the tubing is forced though the walls of the esophagus.
If you have never emptied a baby's crop, it is best to contact an avian vet or an experienced breeder to do the task. A stretched crop is a condition seen in handfeeding baby parrots. It is caused by trying to give a baby too much food in one feed, and, thereby, overfilling and stretching the muscles of the crop. The crop skin and muscles have a natural elasticity that assist in the digestion of food and retain their shape as the food is digested.
When empty, the crop should be flat. If the crop is overfilled to the point of stretching the skin and muscles, it will hang onto the breastbone, and a portion of the food will remain in the part of the crop that is overlapping onto the breastbone. It will appear very much like a deflated balloon. If left uncorrected, the food remaining in the crop will develop bacteria, which will slow the digestive process even more, causing weight loss and possibly eventual death. If your baby's crop should become stretched, you can help correct the problem by making a "crop bra" for him.
The illustration shows a picture of a crop bra. Depending on the size of the baby, it may be made with a wide gauze bandage, or a strip of towel or rag. The wide area in the middle should be long and wide enough to support his crop, the strips should be long enough too be fastened around him. The upper strips should be fastened, or tied, around the back of his neck, above his wings, and the lower strips should be under his wings and around his back.
The crop bra should remain on the baby until his crop muscles are strong enough to empty his crop. Until then, the crop should be emptied completely, and cleaned with warm water, every 24 hours.
Splay leg is a condition that begins in very young babies that are not strong enough to hold their legs together on a slippery surface. It is generally caused by keeping the baby in a container that either does not have enough bedding, or, the surface under the bedding is so smooth that he cannot get his footing.
His legs will spread out to the sides and very soon he will not be able to hold them under him at all. If this condition is not corrected at an early age, it may become permanent as he grows and the bones harden.
Splay leg is very easily corrected when it is recognized early enough. If the legs are secured under the baby at a distance apart that would normal for him to stand, the problem can usually be remedied in less than a week. The correction time will depend on the severity and the age of the chick. It is also important to correct the conditions that caused the problem to prevent it from recurring.
Depending on the size of the baby, the legs may be held together with gauze tape, a strip of cloth, or connected rings that his feet will fit through. Whatever you use, make sure that nothing is so tight on this legs that the circulation to his feet is cut off.
If this happens, you may save his legs and lose his feet. Once his legs have become strong enough for him to support him, and stay under him, the supports may be removed. If splay leg is not corrected, the baby's legs will grow out to the sides, and he will never be able to stand normally. This problem most often develops in very young babies that are still growing and developing. The tendon that normally fits into the groove at the heal of the foot slips to the side of the heal.
As the tendon contracts it will cause the foot to turn to the side and the toes to clench. It will look as though the baby is walking on the side of his foot.
At less than 2 weeks, I have been able to correct this problem by securing the baby's feet on a piece of tape, much like standing him on a mouse sticky trap. As he gets a little older, the tendon may be surgically pinned in the correct position until it enlarges the groove in the heal to retain placement on its own.
If the condition is not recognized early enough in the babies development, the tendon may shorten so that the baby's foot is permanently turned to the side. If the condition is corrected, there will be no residual side effects, and no evidence that the problem ever existed. Scissor is a condition where the upper mandible is not straight and does not meet correctly over the lower mandible.
There have been many theories as to the cause of this condition, e. It is very possible that it may be caused by any one, or a combination of these.
Feeding technique has often been blamed as the cause of this condition, but I believe that there are other contributing factors. I, personally, feed over babies a year, and may have one or two of these that have scissor beak. All of them are fed the same. Although feeding technique may, at times, be one of the causes,there are a number of other possible reasons for the condition.
Heredity may be one of the causes, but I have seen this condition in a babies that were not consistently from any related parentage. This condition may occur in young babies that tend to clamp the top mandible tightly over the lower mandible to one side or the other doing the chugging, feeding motion. This causes a groove to develop in the lower mandible that the upper mandible begins to rest in.
In time, the upper mandible begins to curve to one side as it rests in this groove, and the lower mandible grows longer on the opposite side. Many desert birds get the water that they need entirely from their food. The elimination of nitrogenous wastes as uric acid reduces the physiological demand for water,  as uric acid is not very toxic and thus does not need to be diluted in as much water. Male birds have two testes which become hundreds of times larger during the breeding season to produce sperm.
Some species of birds have two functional ovaries, and the order Apterygiformes always retain both ovaries. Most male birds have no phallus. In the males of species without a phallus, sperm is stored in the seminal glomera within the cloacal protuberance prior to copulation. During copulation , the female moves her tail to the side and the male either mounts the female from behind or in front as in the stitchbird , or moves very close to her.
The cloacae then touch, so that the sperm can enter the female's reproductive tract. This can happen very fast, sometimes in less than half a second. The sperm is stored in the female's sperm storage tubules for a period varying from a week to more than days,  depending on the species. Then, eggs will be fertilized individually as they leave the ovaries, before the shell is calcified in the oviduct. After the egg is laid by the female, the embryo continues to develop in the egg outside the female body.
Many waterfowl and some other birds, such as the ostrich and turkey , possess a phallus. This appears to be the primitive condition among birds, most birds have lost the phallus. These vaginal structures may be used to prevent penetration by the male phallus which coils counter-clockwise. In these species, copulation is often violent and female co-operation is not required; the female ability to prevent fertilization may allow the female to choose the father for her offspring.
After the eggs hatch, parents provide varying degrees of care in terms of food and protection. Precocial birds can care for themselves independently within minutes of hatching; altricial hatchlings are helpless, blind, and naked, and require extended parental care.
The chicks of many ground-nesting birds such as partridges and waders are often able to run virtually immediately after hatching; such birds are referred to as nidifugous.
The young of hole-nesters though, are often totally incapable of unassisted survival. The process whereby a chick acquires feathers until it can fly is called "fledging". Some birds, such as pigeons, geese, and red-crowned cranes , remain with their mates for life and may produce offspring on a regular basis. Avian kidneys function in almost the same way as the more extensively studied mammalian kidney, but with a few important adaptations; while much of the anatomy remains unchanged in design, some important modifications have occurred during their evolution.
A bird has paired kidneys which are connected to the lower gastrointestinal tract through the ureters. Blood vessels and other tubes make up the remaining mass. Unique to birds is the presence of two different types of nephrons the functional unit of the kidney both reptilian-like nephrons located in the cortex and mammalian-like nephrons located in the medulla. Reptilian nephrons are more abundant but lack the distinctive loops of Henle seen in mammals.
The urine collected by the kidney is emptied into the cloaca through the ureters and then to the colon by reverse peristalsis. Birds have acute eyesight—raptors birds of prey have vision eight times sharper than humans—thanks to higher densities of photoreceptors in the retina up to 1,, per square mm in Buteos , compared to , for humans , a high number of neurons in the optic nerves , a second set of eye muscles not found in other animals, and, in some cases, an indented fovea which magnifies the central part of the visual field.
Many species, including hummingbirds and albatrosses , have two foveas in each eye. Many birds can detect polarised light. The avian ear is adapted to pick up on slight and rapid changes of pitch found in bird song. General avian tympanic membrane form is ovular and slightly conical. Morphological differences in the middle ear are observed between species. Ossicles within green finches, blackbirds, song thrushes, and house sparrows are proportionately shorter to those found in pheasants, Mallard ducks, and sea birds.
In song birds, a syrinx allows the respective possessors to create intricate melodies and tones. The middle avian ear is made up of three semicircular canals, each ending in an ampulla and joining to connect with the macula sacculus and lagena, of which the cochlea, a straight short tube to the external ear, branches from.
Birds have a large brain to body mass ratio. This is reflected in the advanced and complex bird intelligence. The immune system of birds resembles that of other animals. Birds have both innate and adaptive immune systems. Birds are susceptible to tumours , immune deficiency and autoimmune diseases. The bursa of fabricius , also known as the cloacal bursa, is a lymphoid organ which aids in the production of B lymphocytes during humoral immunity.
The bursa of fabricius is present during juvenile stages but curls up, and in the sparrow is not visible after the sparrow reaches sexual maturity. The bursa of fabricius is a circular pouch connected to the superior dorsal side of the cloaca. The bursa is composed of many folds, known as plica, which are lined by more than 10, follicles encompassed by connective tissue and surrounded by mesenchyme.
Each follicle consists of a cortex that surrounds a medulla. The cortex houses the highly compacted B lymphocytes , whereas the medulla houses lymphocytes loosely. There are , B lymphocytes located around each follicle.
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Archived from the original on March 11, University of Texas Press. Animal Feed Science and Technology. The Journal of Applied Poultry Research.
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A Complete Guide to their Biology and Behavior. Form and function in birds. Owls of the United States and Canada: Johns Hopkins University Press. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. One does not need good soil to grow vegetables. Water is used efficiently. Pollution of soil with unused nutrients is greatly reduced. Hydroponic production is management, capital and labour intensive.
A high level of expertise is required. Daily attention is necessary. Specially formulated, soluble nutrients must always be used. Pests and diseases remain a big risk.
Finding a market can be a problem. Good topsoil is required. Plants are irrigated automatically. Plants need to be irrigated to minimise water stress Nutrients are available at all times Only soluble fertilizers are used. Hydroponic fertilizer formulations contain a balanced nutrient content Nutrients must be added to soil.
Unless a laboratory analysis is done, too much or too little nutrients can be added. Soil borne diseases can be eliminated Soil borne diseases can build up in the soil. Quality, quantity and reliablity A market. Know what, where and when to market your crop Hydroponics is labour intensive.
During peak season, labour must be available for 7 days a week Management skills: Infra-structure, labour, market, etc Financing: The amount needed depends on the size, type of greenhouse, labour cost and your market Dedication. Symptoms of nutrient deficiency can easily be mistaken for disease symptoms. Which crop should I grow? Depends on the choice of the family and the type of unit. Seed is available in small or large packages. Large packets, suitable for commercial scale production are available from seed companies.
In South Africa the following are popular: Flat roof, pitch roof and tunnel type Plastic: Tunnels and multi-spans Greenhouse choice depends on the crop, market and financing available How do we create a more favourable climate in our greenhouses?
Shadenetting offers protection in the following ways: Cuts out a certain amount of sunlight, in particular harmful UV rays. Protects plants against winds, rain, hail, animals, birds and large insects Allows for natural ventilation and air circulation. Hydroponics Field production No soil is required. Plants need to be irrigated to minimise water stress.
Nutrients are available at all times Only soluble fertilizers are used. Hydroponic fertilizer formulations contain a balanced nutrient content. Nutrients must be added to soil. Soil borne diseases can be eliminated. Soil borne diseases can build up in the soil.
Garden units Source of clean water The right location Specially formulated fertilizer Time to attend to the system daily A little knowledge of plants or gardening A commercial or home made unit. Pests and diseases The optimal growing conditions for plant growth also provide favourable conditions for the development and spread of diseases and pests. For a disease-causing organism or pathogen to be able to infect a plant and cause a disease, three conditions have to be optimal: Tips to prevent spread of diseases The most important tools are knowledge and dedication Several cultivation practices can prevent the spread of disease Sanitation Use of pesticides - Where do I buy suitable pesticides?
Commercial producers can obtain bigger quantities from agrochemical companies. Pesticides can be effective only if: The pest has been identified correctly. This can be tricky!