What is muscular dystrophy?
Of course, since this possibility is probably unverifiable, parsimony requires that it be rejected pending other evidence. Principles and facts are discovered not invented because they were already in effect. Brown pigment gallstones may be crumbly and irregular. If he requires engineered foods such as bars and shakes, it will most likely be to meet his energy needs rather than his protein needs. Individual organisms develop, not evolve.
Slideshow: Busted: Popular Diet Myths
There is some data, however, suggesting that both endurance and strength athletes have increased protein needs compared to inactive individuals. Endurance athletes may need as much as 1. For an adult consuming kcals per day, the acceptable protein intake ranges from grams per day, an amount easily met. Consider the pound bodybuilder whose protein needs are approximately grams per day.
With his energy needs so great, however, his diet will need careful planning. If he requires engineered foods such as bars and shakes, it will most likely be to meet his energy needs rather than his protein needs. One population that needs special attention is the elderly. Though the RDA for older adults remains the same as for younger adults, some research suggests their needs may be 1.
Helping them meet their nutritional needs may take a little creativity and perseverance. People become vegetarian for a variety of reasons including religious beliefs, health concerns, and a concern for animals or for the environment. Yes, in the typical American diet, most of our protein comes from animal foods.
It is possible, however, to meet all of your protein needs while consuming a vegetarian diet. You can even eat adequate protein on a carefully planned vegan diet - a diet that excludes all animal products, including eggs and dairy. When you think of protein, like most people, you probably think of beef, chicken, turkey, fish and dairy products. Beans and nuts might come to mind as well.
Most foods contain at least a little protein, so by eating a diet with variety, vegetarians and vegans can eat all the protein they need without special supplements. This list illustrates the amount of protein found in common foods that may be included in your diet.
A complete protein includes all of the essential amino acids. Complete proteins include all animal proteins and soy. Incomplete proteins lack one or more essential amino acids. Beans, nuts, grains and vegetables are incomplete proteins. Previously, registered dietitians and physicians advised vegetarians to combine foods that contained incomplete proteins at the same meal to give the body all the necessary amino acids it needed at one time.
Today we know this is unnecessary. Your body combines complementary or incomplete proteins that are eaten in the same day. If you eat a variety of foods, you will meet your protein needs. Recreational athletes rarely need protein supplements. Doctors, nutritionists and public health officials told us to stop eating so much fat. Cut back on fat, they said, to lose weight and fend off heart disease among other ills. Rather, low-fat food labels seduced us, and we made pretzels and fat-free, sugar-rich desserts our grocery staples.
Today we know to focus on the quality of the fat instead of simply the quantity. Say NO to very low-fat diets. Many people find them limiting, boring, tasteless and hard to stick to.
And because fat tends to slow down digestion, many low-fat dieters fight hunger pangs all day or eat such an abundance of low-fat foods that their calorie intake is too great for weight loss. Dietary fat has critical roles in the body. This caloric density is a lifesaver when food is scarce and is important for anyone unable to consume large amounts of food. The elderly, the sick and others with very poor appetites benefit from high-fat foods. Fats and oils collectively known as lipids contain mixtures of fatty acids.
You may refer to olive oil as a monounsaturated fat. Really, however, olive oil contains a combination of monounsaturated, saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, but it has more monounsaturated fatty acids than other types.
Similarly, it is technically incorrect to call lard a saturated fat. It does contain mostly saturated fatty acids, but both monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids are present as well.
Depending on the age, the AI for infants is 30 or 31 grams of fat per day. For an adult consuming kcals then, the acceptable fat intake ranges from 35 to 62 grams daily. Experts discourage low-fat diets for infants, toddlers and young children because fat is energy-dense, making it appropriate for small, finicky appetites and to support growth and the developing central nervous system. Because your body can make all the saturated fatty acids it needs, you do not need any in the diet.
High intakes of most saturated fatty acids are linked to high levels of LDL low-density lipoprotein , or bad, cholesterol and reduced insulin sensitivity. If you tried to eat no saturated fatty acids, however, you would soon find that you had little to eat. Remember that fats are combinations of fatty acids, so even nuts and salmon good sources of healthy fats contain some saturated fatty acids. What does bacon grease look like after the pan has cooled?
Its firmness is a hint that bacon is high in saturated fat. Many saturated fats are solid at room temperature. Dairy fat and the tropical oils coconut, palm and palm kernel are also largely saturated. The greatest sources of saturated fat in the American diet are full-fat cheese, pizza and desserts.
The benefit you experience from reducing your intake of saturated fats depends on many factors, including what you replace them with. Loading up on fat-free pretzels and gummy candies may be tempting, but is a misguided strategy because diets high in heavily refined carbohydrates typically increase triglycerides and lower the beneficial HDL high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, both risk factors for heart disease.
A better strategy is to replace the foods rich in unhealthy fats with foods rich in healthy fats. Cooking with oils is better than cooking with butter or lard.
A quick lunch of a peanut butter sandwich instead of a slice of pizza will do your heart some good. Trading out some of the cheese on your sandwich for a slice or two of avocado is another smart move. Food manufacturers create both saturated and trans fats when they harden oil in a process called hydrogenation, usually to increase the shelf life of processed foods like crackers, chips and cookies.
Partial hydrogenation converts some, but not all, unsaturated fatty acids to saturated ones. Others remain unsaturated but are changed in chemical structure. These are the health-damaging trans fats.
They also lower HDL cholesterol the good cholesterol. Achieving this might be trickier than you realize because many foods touting No Trans Fats on their labels actually contain traces of these artery-scarring fats. If you eat a few servings of foods with smidgens of trans fat like margarine crackers and baked goods, you can easily exceed the recommended limit.
Identify traces of trans fats by reading the ingredients lists on food labels. Partially hydrogenated oil is code for trans fat. You know that there are at least traces of trans fat present. When oil is fully hydrogenated the label will say hydrogenated or fully hydrogenated , it will not contain trans fats.
Instead, the unsaturated fatty acids have been converted to saturated fatty acids. As discussed, unsaturated fatty acids improve blood cholesterol levels and insulin sensitivity when they replace saturated and trans fats. There are two classes of unsaturated fatty acids: Monounsaturated fat souces include avocados, nuts, seeds and olives.
Peanut, canola and olive oils are additional sources. When you work on reducing whole-milk dairy, solid fats like butter and bacon grease , and processed foods containing partially hydrogenated oils, be sure to replace them with unsaturated fats rather than simply adding extra calories to your usual diet. Otherwise you can expect to loosen your belt as you put on the pounds.
Instead choose them wisely, making sure you do not exceed your calorie needs. Enjoy foods with monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats while limiting the saturated and trans fats.
The National Academies Press. Dietary Guidelines for Americans, Department of Agricultural, U. Department of Health and Human Services, Anderson JW, Baird P et al. Health Benefits of Dietary Fiber. A Practice Manual for Professionals, 4th Edition. American Dietetic Association, J Am Geriatr Soc. Position of the American Dietetic Association. J Am Diet Assoc. These symptoms are nonspecific. This means that these symptoms are also linked with many other conditions that have nothing to do with cancer.
Having these symptoms does not necessarily mean you have bladder cancer. If you have any of these symptoms, you should see your health-care professional right away. People who can see blood in their urine gross hematuria , especially older males who smoke, are considered to have a high likelihood of bladder cancer until proven otherwise.
Unfortunately, the blood is often invisible to the eye. This is called microscopic hematuria, and it is detectable with a simple urine test.
In some cases, enough blood is in the urine to noticeably change the urine color, gross hematuria. The urine may have a slightly pink or orange hue, or it may be bright red with or without clots. If your urine changes color beyond just being more or less concentrated, particularly if you see blood in the urine, you need to see your health-care professional promptly.
Visible blood in the urine is referred to as gross, or macroscopic, hematuria. Bladder cancer often causes no symptoms until it reaches an advanced stage that is difficult to cure.
Therefore, you may want to talk to your health-care professional about screening tests if you have risk factors for bladder cancer. Screening is testing for cancer in people who have never had the disease and have no symptoms but who have one or more risk factors. Any new changes in urinary habits or appearance of the urine warrants a visit to your health-care professional, especially if you have risk factors for bladder cancer. In most cases, bladder cancer is not the cause, but you will be evaluated for other conditions that can cause these symptoms, some of which can be serious.
Like all cancers, bladder cancer is most likely to be successfully treated if detected early, when it is small and has not invaded surrounding tissues. The following measures can increase the chance of finding a bladder cancer early:. These tests are also used to diagnose bladder cancers in people who are having symptoms.
The following tests might be done if bladder cancer is suspected:. If a tumor is found in the bladder, other tests may be performed, either at the time of diagnosis or later, to determine whether the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
A cancer is described as to its extent, or staged, using a system developed by consensus among specialists in cancer. Staging describes the extent of the cancer when it is first found or diagnosed. This includes the depth of invasion of a bladder cancer, and whether or not the cancer is still only in the bladder, or has already spread to tissues beyond the bladder including lymph nodes , or has spread or metastasized to distant organs. Bladder cancers are classified by how deeply they invade into the bladder wall, which has several layers.
Typically we subdivide bladder cancer into superficial and invasive diseases. In addition to how deeply the cancer penetrates in the bladder wall, the grade of the bladder cancer provides important information and can help guide treatment. The tumor grade is based on the degree of abnormality observed in a microscopic evaluation of the tumor. Cells from a high-grade cancer have more changes in form and have a greater degree of abnormality when viewed microscopically than do cells from a low-grade tumor.
This information is provided by the pathologist, a physician trained in the science of tissue analysis and diagnosis. In addition to papillary tumors, bladder cancer can develop in the form of a flat, red erythematous patch on the mucosal surface. This is called carcinoma-in-situ CIS. Although these tumors are superficial, they are often high-grade and have a high risk for becoming invasive. Of all types of cancer, bladder cancer has an unusually high propensity for recurring after initial treatment if that treatment was only a local removal or excision typically by transurethral resection.
The recurring cancer is usually, but not always, of the same type as the first primary cancer. It may be in the bladder or in another part of the urinary tract kidneys or ureters. Bladder cancer is most common in industrialized countries. It is the fifth most common type of cancer in the United States.
It is the fourth most common in men and the ninth in women. What Are the Stages of Bladder Cancer? As in most cancers, the chances of recovery are determined by the stage of the disease. Stage refers to the size of the cancer and the extent to which it has invaded the bladder wall and spread to other parts of the body.
Staging is based on imaging studies such as CT scans, X-rays , or ultrasound and biopsy results. Each stage has its own treatment options and chance for cure. In addition, equally important is the grade of the bladder cancer. High-grade tumors are significantly more aggressive and life threatening than low-grade tumors.
What Are Bladder Cancer Treatments? What Specialists Treat Bladder Cancer? Although medical treatments are fairly standardized, different doctors have different philosophies and practices in caring for their patients.
If bladder cancer is suspected or is a possible concern of your primary care doctor or internists then they may refer you to a urologist. Urologists are surgeons who specialize in the management of disorders of the urinary system. When selecting your urologist, you will want to identify someone who is skilled in treating bladder cancer and with whom you feel comfortable. After you have chosen a urologist to treat your cancer, you will have ample opportunity to ask questions and discuss the treatments available to you.
Other physicians that you may meet include a medical oncologist, a medical doctor specializing in the treatment of cancer, and a radiation oncologist, a specialized cancer doctor who treats cancer with radiation-based treatments. Like all cancers, bladder cancer is most likely to be cured if it is diagnosed early and treated promptly. Your treatment team will also include one or more nurses, a dietitian, a social worker, and other professionals as needed.
Standard therapies for bladder cancer include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and immunotherapy or biological therapy. Radiation is a painless, invisible high-energy ray that can kill both cancer cells and normal cells in its path.
New radiation treatments are able to focus radiation better and damage fewer normal cells. Radiation may be given for small muscle-invasive bladder cancers.
It is commonly used as an alternative approach to or in addition to surgery, often in patients who may be too ill to undergo surgery. Either of two types of radiation can be used. However, for greatest therapeutic efficacy, it should be given in conjunction with chemotherapy:. Unfortunately, radiation affects not only cancer cells but also any healthy tissues it touches.
With external radiation, healthy tissue overlying or adjacent to the tumor can be damaged if the radiation cannot be focused enough. The side effects of radiation depend on the dose and the area of the body where the radiation is targeted. Chemotherapy is the use of powerful drugs to kill cancer. In bladder cancer, chemotherapy may be given alone or with surgery or radiation therapy or both.
It may be given before or after the other therapies. Chemotherapy can usually be given in a doctor's office or outpatient treatment clinic, but it may require a stay in the hospital.