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The latest study is the first to focus on whether it may help older people. New bandage made of silk and gold that is laser-bonded to your skin 'fixes wounds Aim for moderate and consistent portion sizes for each meal. The Metabolic Multi-risk Factor". The prevalence of abdominal obesity is increasing in western populations, possibly due to a combination of low physical activity and high-calorie diets, and also in developing countries, where it is associated with the urbanization of populations.

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There is an indication that gut flora in obese and lean individuals can affect the metabolic potential. This apparent alteration of the metabolic potential is believed to confer a greater capacity to harvest energy contributing to obesity.

Whether these differences are the direct cause or the result of obesity has yet to be determined unequivocally. An association between viruses and obesity has been found in humans and several different animal species. The amount that these associations may have contributed to the rising rate of obesity is yet to be determined. Certain aspects of personality are associated with being obese. There are many possible pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the development and maintenance of obesity.

In particular, they and other appetite-related hormones act on the hypothalamus , a region of the brain central to the regulation of food intake and energy expenditure. There are several circuits within the hypothalamus that contribute to its role in integrating appetite, the melanocortin pathway being the most well understood.

The arcuate nucleus contains two distinct groups of neurons. Both groups of arcuate nucleus neurons are regulated in part by leptin. Thus a deficiency in leptin signaling, either via leptin deficiency or leptin resistance, leads to overfeeding and may account for some genetic and acquired forms of obesity.

The World Health Organization WHO predicts that overweight and obesity may soon replace more traditional public health concerns such as undernutrition and infectious diseases as the most significant cause of poor health.

Solutions look at changing the factors that cause excess food energy consumption and inhibit physical activity. Efforts include federally reimbursed meal programs in schools, limiting direct junk food marketing to children, [] and decreasing access to sugar-sweetened beverages in schools.

Many organizations have published reports pertaining to obesity. This is a comprehensive evidence-based guideline to address the management and prevention of overweight and obesity in adults and children.

Comprehensive approaches are being looked at to address the rising rates of obesity. The Obesity Policy Action OPA framework divides measure into 'upstream' policies, 'midstream' policies, 'downstream' policies. The main treatment for obesity consists of dieting and physical exercise. In the short-term low carbohydrate diets appear better than low fat diets for weight loss.

Five medications have evidence for long-term use orlistat , lorcaserin , liraglutide , phentermine—topiramate , and naltrexone—bupropion. The most effective treatment for obesity is bariatric surgery. In earlier historical periods obesity was rare, and achievable only by a small elite, although already recognised as a problem for health. But as prosperity increased in the Early Modern period , it affected increasingly larger groups of the population. In the WHO formally recognized obesity as a global epidemic.

Once considered a problem only of high-income countries, obesity rates are rising worldwide and affecting both the developed and developing world.

Obesity is from the Latin obesitas , which means "stout, fat, or plump". Ancient Greek medicine recognizes obesity as a medical disorder, and records that the Ancient Egyptians saw it in the same way. It was common among high officials in Europe in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance [] as well as in Ancient East Asian civilizations. With the onset of the Industrial Revolution it was realized that the military and economic might of nations were dependent on both the body size and strength of their soldiers and workers.

During the 20th century, as populations reached their genetic potential for height, weight began increasing much more than height, resulting in obesity. Many cultures throughout history have viewed obesity as the result of a character flaw. The obesus or fat character in Ancient Greek comedy was a glutton and figure of mockery. During Christian times the food was viewed as a gateway to the sins of sloth and lust. People of all ages can face social stigmatization, and may be targeted by bullies or shunned by their peers.

The weight that is viewed as an ideal has become lower since the s. In Britain, the weight at which people considered themselves to be overweight was significantly higher in than in Obesity is still seen as a sign of wealth and well-being in many parts of Africa.

This has become particularly common since the HIV epidemic began. Some attribute the Venus figurines to the tendency to emphasize fertility while others feel they represent "fatness" in the people of the time. This continued through much of Christian European history, with only those of low socioeconomic status being depicted as obese. These women, however, still maintained the "hourglass" shape with its relationship to fertility.

After centuries of obesity being synonymous with wealth and social status, slimness began to be seen as the desirable standard.

In addition to its health impacts, obesity leads to many problems including disadvantages in employment [] [] and increased business costs. These effects are felt by all levels of society from individuals, to corporations, to governments. Obesity prevention programs have been found to reduce the cost of treating obesity-related disease. However, the longer people live, the more medical costs they incur. Researchers, therefore, conclude that reducing obesity may improve the public's health, but it is unlikely to reduce overall health spending.

Obesity can lead to social stigmatization and disadvantages in employment. The most common injuries in this group were due to falls and lifting, thus affecting the lower extremities, wrists or hands, and backs. Some research shows that obese people are less likely to be hired for a job and are less likely to be promoted.

Specific industries, such as the airline, healthcare and food industries, have special concerns. Due to rising rates of obesity, airlines face higher fuel costs and pressures to increase seating width. With the American Medical Association 's classification of obesity as a chronic disease, [16] it is thought that health insurance companies will more likely pay for obesity treatment, counseling and surgery, and the cost of research and development of fat treatment pills or gene therapy treatments should be more affordable if insurers help to subsidize their cost.

In , The European Court of Justice ruled that morbid obesity is a disability. The Court said that if an employee's obesity prevents him from "full and effective participation of that person in professional life on an equal basis with other workers", then it shall be considered a disability and that firing someone on such grounds is discriminatory. The principal goal of the fat acceptance movement is to decrease discrimination against people who are overweight and obese.

A number of organizations exist that promote the acceptance of obesity. It has more of a global orientation and describes its mission as promoting size acceptance and helping to end weight-based discrimination. The American legal system, however, has decided that the potential public health costs exceed the benefits of extending this anti-discrimination law to cover obesity.

In the New York Times published an article on the Global Energy Balance Network , a nonprofit founded in that advocated for people to focus on increasing exercise rather than reducing calorie intake to avoid obesity and to be healthy.

Hand and Steven N. The healthy BMI range varies with the age and sex of the child. As with obesity in adults, many factors contribute to the rising rates of childhood obesity. Changing diet and decreasing physical activity are believed to be the two most important causes for the recent increase in the incidence of child obesity.

Obesity in pets is common in many countries. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the medical journal, see Obesity journal. Relative risk of death over 10 years for white men left and women right who have never smoked in the United States by BMI. Sedentary lifestyle and Exercise trends.

Social determinants of obesity. World obesity prevalence among males left and females right in Percentage of the population either overweight or obese by year. Retrieved 2 February Archives of General Psychiatry. The New England Journal of Medicine. Criteria and classification of obesity in Japan and Asia-Oceania.

World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics. Treatment of the Obese Patient Contemporary Endocrinology. Retrieved 5 April Frontiers of Hormone Research. Recognizes Obesity as a Disease". Archived from the original on 23 June Retrieved 24 June Retrieved 15 February Journal of Clinical Epidemiology. Center for disease control and prevention.

Retrieved 6 April The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Formulation and Treatment in Clinical Health Psychology.

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. American Journal of Medical Genetics. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. European clinical practice guidelines" PDF. Archived from the original PDF on 26 April International Journal of Obesity. Annals of Internal Medicine. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism.

The Journal of Clinical Investigation. Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis. European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology.

Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada. Current Pain and Headache Reports Review. Those healthy vegetables added low-cal bulk to the tasty dish. A protein-rich breakfast may help you resist snack attacks throughout the day. The women ate a calorie breakfast that included eggs and a beef sausage patty.

The effect of the high-protein breakfast seemed to last into the evening, when the women munched less on fatty, sugary goods than the women who had cereal for breakfast. For a great snack on the run, take a small handful of almonds, peanuts, walnuts, or pecans. Research shows that when people munch on nuts, they automatically eat less at later meals. Skip the apple juice and the applesauce and opt instead for a crunchy apple. One reason is that raw fruit has more fiber. A Harvard study followed more than , people for a decade or longer.

Yogurt, of all the foods that were tracked, was most closely linked to weight loss. Yes, grapefruit really can help you shed pounds, especially if you are at risk for diabetes. Drinking grapefruit juice had the same results. But grapefruit juice doesn't have any proven "fat-burning" properties -- it may just have helped people feel full.

You cannot have grapefruit or grapefruit juice if you are on certain medications, so check the label on all your prescriptions , or ask your pharmacist or doctor. Always consider the full nutritional makeup of the foods you eat, not just their calories.

A calorie diet can also put you at danger for muscle loss. At first, muscle loss may seem like you are losing more weight, but keep in mind that not all weight is bad. To keep your body healthy, you need to be able to build muscles. A healthy diet burns fat, not muscle. Another health risk to keep in mind when considering a calorie diet is that your metabolism will change when you reduce the amount of calories you eat for a long enough period of time.

Severe calorie restriction for prolonged periods of time will lead to a slower metabolism. This can lead you to burn fewer calories. Also, when you lose weight, you then need fewer calories to maintain your new weight than you needed for your original weight. But if they do so, they will regain weight until they reach their original weight.

Though you may lose weight, you are at risk of malnutrition , which can cause many health problems. Healthy weight loss includes getting a variety of nutrients from varied food sources, limiting food portions, and burning more calories than you eat. Stick to that approach to get the pounds off and keep them off. For optimal health, it is a good idea to choose the foods that contain the most nutrients.

Here are the 11 most nutrient dense foods on earth. For expert advice on how to eat healthier and get the nutrients you need, check out these top healthy eating books. This is a review of 5 human studies that have been done on the Mediterranean diet, looking at weight loss, various diseases and the risk of death.

Spicy food isn't just exciting - it's also in your health's best interest. Here's why the world of science recommends you turn up the heat on your…. This is a detailed beginner's guide to the 5: This diet is very effective to lose weight and improve health.

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