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It does include generic tips designed to help consumers identify and avoid genetically modified GM foods, including the hidden GM ingredients labeled ingredients on foods that read more like a chemical periodic table on grocers shelves. Shopper's Guide to Pesticides in Produce It's also important to remember that not all organic compounds are good for us either. You may be shocked to find: Faced by an accuser, he pulled out a cutting from an herb from a little bag he was carrying. Frame scores are classifications of skeletal size. Killed inactivated vaccines KV vs Modified-live vaccines MLV ; Comparison of advantages and disadvantages of modified-live and killed inactivated vaccines; Recommended vaccination schedule for dairy heifers from birth to 6 months of age; Recommended vaccination schedule for heifers pre-breeding to calving; Recommended vaccination schedule for adult dairy cattle; Recommended vaccination schedule for dairy herd bulls; etc Examples of "Swine" Subject Categories include "

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Bone Marrow Transplantation Stem Cell Transplantation - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

The transverse colon hangs off the stomach , attached to it by a large fold of peritoneum called the greater omentum. On the posterior side, the transverse colon is connected to the posterior abdominal wall by a mesentery known as the transverse mesocolon. The transverse colon is encased in peritoneum , and is therefore mobile unlike the parts of the colon immediately before and after it.

The proximal two-thirds of the transverse colon is perfused by the middle colic artery , a branch of the superior mesenteric artery SMA , while the latter third is supplied by branches of the inferior mesenteric artery IMA. The "watershed" area between these two blood supplies, which represents the embryologic division between the midgut and hindgut , is an area sensitive to ischemia.

The descending colon is the part of the colon from the splenic flexure to the beginning of the sigmoid colon. One function of the descending colon in the digestive system is to store feces that will be emptied into the rectum. It is retroperitoneal in two-thirds of humans. In the other third, it has a usually short mesentery.

The descending colon is also called the distal gut , as it is further along the gastrointestinal tract than the proximal gut. Gut flora are very dense in this region. The sigmoid colon is the part of the large intestine after the descending colon and before the rectum. The name sigmoid means S-shaped see sigmoid ; cf.

The walls of the sigmoid colon are muscular, and contract to increase the pressure inside the colon, causing the stool to move into the rectum. The sigmoid colon is supplied with blood from several branches usually between 2 and 6 of the sigmoid arteries , a branch of the IMA.

The IMA terminates as the superior rectal artery. Sigmoidoscopy is a common diagnostic technique used to examine the sigmoid colon. The rectum is the last section of the large intestine.

It holds the formed feces awaiting elimination via defecation. The taenia coli run the length of the large intestine. Because the taenia coli are shorter than the large bowel itself, the colon becomes sacculated , forming the haustra of the colon which are the shelf-like intraluminal projections.

Arterial supply to the colon comes from branches of the superior mesenteric artery SMA and inferior mesenteric artery IMA. Flow between these two systems communicates via a "marginal artery" that runs parallel to the colon for its entire length. Historically, it has been believed that the arc of Riolan, or the meandering mesenteric artery of Moskowitz , is a variable vessel connecting the proximal SMA to the proximal IMA that can be extremely important if either vessel is occluded.

However, recent studies conducted with improved imaging technology have questioned the actual existence of this vessel, with some experts calling for the abolition of the terms from future medical literature. Venous drainage usually mirrors colonic arterial supply, with the inferior mesenteric vein draining into the splenic vein , and the superior mesenteric vein joining the splenic vein to form the hepatic portal vein that then enters the liver.

Lymphatic drainage from the ascending colon and proximal two-thirds of the transverse colon is to the colic lymph nodes and the superior mesenteric lymph nodes , which drain into the cisterna chyli.

One variation on the normal anatomy of the colon occurs when extra loops form, resulting in a colon that is up to five metres longer than normal. This condition, referred to as redundant colon , typically has no direct major health consequences, though rarely volvulus occurs, resulting in obstruction and requiring immediate medical attention.

The wall of the large intestine is lined with simple columnar epithelium with invaginations. The invaginations are called the intestinal glands or colonic crypts. The colon crypts are shaped like microscopic thick walled test tubes with a central hole down the length of the tube the crypt lumen.

Four tissue sections are shown here, two cut across the long axes of the crypts and two cut parallel to the long axes. In these images the cells have been stained by immunohistochemistry to show a brown-orange color if the cells produce a mitochondrial protein called cytochrome c oxidase subunit I CCOI. The nuclei of the cells located at the outer edges of the cells lining the walls of the crypts are stained blue-gray with haematoxylin. As seen in panels C and D, crypts are about 75 to about cells long.

Thus, by the images shown here, there are an average of about 1, to cells per colonic crypt. Cells are produced at the crypt base and migrate upward along the crypt axis before being shed into the colonic lumen days later. As estimated from the image in panel A, there are about colonic crypts per square millimeter of the colonic epithelium.

In the four tissue sections shown here, many of the intestinal glands have cells with a mitochondrial DNA mutation in the CCOI gene and appear mostly white, with their main color being the blue-gray staining of the nuclei. Crypts of the colon can reproduce by fission, as seen in panel C, where a crypt is fissioning to form two crypts, and in panel B where at least one crypt appears to be fissioning.

About of the many thousands of protein coding genes expressed in the large intestine, some are specific to the mucous membrane in different regions and include CEACAM7. The large intestine absorbs water and any remaining absorbable nutrients from the food before sending the indigestible matter to the rectum.

The colon absorbs vitamins that are created by the colonic bacteria, such as vitamin K especially important as the daily ingestion of vitamin K is not normally enough to maintain adequate blood coagulation , thiamine and riboflavin. Chloride secretion increases in cystic fibrosis. Recycling of various nutrients takes place in colon. Examples include fermentation of carbohydrates, short chain fatty acids, and urea cycling. The appendix is attached to the inferior surface of the cecum, and contains a small amount of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue which gives the appendix an undetermined role in immunity.

However, the appendix is known to be important in fetal life as it contains endocrine cells that release biogenic amines and peptide hormones important for homeostasis during early growth and development. At this point some electrolytes like sodium , magnesium , and chloride are left as well as indigestible parts of ingested food e. As the chyme moves through the large intestine, most of the remaining water is removed, while the chyme is mixed with mucus and bacteria known as gut flora , and becomes feces.

The ascending colon receives fecal material as a liquid. The muscles of the colon then move the watery waste material forward and slowly absorb all the excess water, causing the stools to gradually solidify as they move along into the descending colon.

The bacteria break down some of the fiber for their own nourishment and create acetate , propionate , and butyrate as waste products, which in turn are used by the cell lining of the colon for nourishment.

The large intestine [34] produces no digestive enzymes — chemical digestion is completed in the small intestine before the chyme reaches the large intestine. The pH in the colon varies between 5. Water absorption at the colon typically proceeds against a transmucosal osmotic pressure gradient.

The standing gradient osmosis is the reabsorption of water against the osmotic gradient in the intestines. Cells occupying the intestinal lining pump sodium ions into the intercellular space, raising the osmolarity of the intercellular fluid.

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Disturbing truth about fluoride and commonly-sold dental care products How to naturally and effectively avoid cavities and gum disease. There are probably more studies in the latter camp but my biases push me towards the former camp. The nature of the researchers also tends to push me towards the former camp.

I posted on insulin detemir here and here to explain my point of view. Now there is this paper: Just eyeballing the insulin doses used we can assume that the plasma insulin levels were a reasonable approximation for humans in the normal post prandial period, ie physiological fed-state rather than pharmacological. The research group is completely wedded to the idea that central insulin is an appetite suppressant and that weight gain from any insulin therapy is only a reaction to recurrent hypoglycamia.

As there is no hypoglycaemia during the clamps their presumption is that this neutral insulin infusion results in a reduced food intake. As insulin detemir gives less food intake after a normoglycaemic clamp than neutral insulin does, then their conclusion is that insulin detemir is having a more potent central appetite suppressing effect than the neutral insulin.

They are so confident about this that the inclusion of a control situation, where saline was infused without any insulin and appetite was checked after this, was considered un-necessary.

This really is the level of research in the "satiety" insulin camp. Posted by Peter at Wednesday, August 01, 10 comments: Insulin makes you hungry 4 unless you keep it out of your brain. Monday, July 30, Insulin makes you hungry 3 a matter of semantics and free fatty acids.

There is absolutely nothing technically incorrect with the description of the results contained within the title of this paper: Effects of insulin-induced hypoglycaemia on energy intake and food choice at a subsequent test meal They gave a small dose of insulin low enough to not need rescue glucose within the study period as a single bolus, waited for 20 minutes then offered the subjects an eat-as-much-as you-like buffet.

This is what the glucose levels did. Posted by Peter at Monday, July 30, 5 comments: Insulin makes you hungry 3 a matter of semantics and free fatty acids. Tuesday, July 24, Insulin makes you hungry 2 even in the presence of hyperglycaemia. This is the paper cited by Woo: Posted by Peter at Tuesday, July 24, No comments: Insulin makes you hungry 1.

If you want to think about the central effects of insulin you could do a great deal worse than working through this paper: Brain insulin controls adipose tissue lipolysis and lipogenesis It is jammed full of exquisite quotes: Thus, at the doses administered, brain insulin infusion inhibited lipolysis to a similar extent as that achieved with peripheral hyperinsulinemia" Here it is in pictures.

What does a CNS infusion of insulin do to lipolysis, at what are purported to be physiological dose rates? Obviously, it does exactly what peripheral insulin does, but using minuscule amounts; it suppresses lipolysis: Posted by Peter at Tuesday, July 24, 3 comments: Sunday, July 22, Butter gives you fatty liver! This paper is an absolute gem: It contains no trace of understanding in its entirety, but the numbers in the results are fascinating.

How do we sum it up? If you pay people to over eat kcal per day for three weeks they gain weight and they gain liver fat. Posted by Peter at Sunday, July 22, 14 comments: Butter gives you fatty liver!

Tuesday, July 17, Oops. OMG, just seen how many comments are awaiting moderation now I'm back to occasional posting. I'll see what I can do, if desperate I'll just delete the spam and hit post for them all.

Apologies for the inattention over the past few weeks Posted by Peter at Tuesday, July 17, No comments: Woo had a bit of a rant about acipimox. Here's my simplified idea. I've been interested in acipimox, in a round about sort of a way, for a very long time. To me, the core fascination is that it is not only an effective suppressor of lipolysis, but it is pretty well weight-neutral and it most certainly does not result in weight gain.

Which, you have to admit, is interesting. How can this be? I feel something of a clue can be found in the studies using a similar drug, nicotinic acid. Both drugs effectively suppress plasma free fatty acids via the same receptor but the neatest study happens use nicotinic acid. People may recall that I posted about the role of FFAs in the secretion of insulin as demonstrated by an isolated rodent pancreatic preparation, some time ago.

The core concept here is that insulin secretion is dependent on the chain length and saturation of the FFAs used for perfusing the pancreas along with the glucose. This phenomenon appears to be well appreciated by the authors of this next paper same research group: Circulating fatty acids are essential for efficient glucose-stimulated insulin secretion after prolonged fasting in humans So what happens to in-tact humans when you fast them for 24 hours to raise FFAs and then bolus them with intravenous glucose?

Or fast them, artificially drop their FFAs with nicotinic acid, and then bolus them with glucose? This is what happens: Posted by Peter at Tuesday, July 17, 8 comments: Monday, May 28, Speculation on the effect of subcutaneous adipocytes implanted in to the mesentery of mice.

Taking a piece of subcutaneous fat from a sacrificed mouse and implanting in to the mesentery of a recipient mouse causes weight loss in the recipient , starting once the surgery has healed. We know that healing takes something just over six weeks: Posted by Peter at Monday, May 28, 6 comments: Speculation on the effect of subcutaneous adipocytes implanted in to the mesentery of mice.

Sunday, May 20, Guddling in the dark for a respiratory quotient 2. Multiple papers have values that don't make sense, which is an issue making me doubt my sanity and is damaging to my personal extensive set of confirmation biases. They also produce basic contradictions of the physiology of the oxidation of glucose vs the oxidation of fatty acids.

But now I think I can go back and explain much of the peculiarity in this image from Kahn's group, the one which triggered this previous post. Two sets of mice, on the same chow, having sustained differences in RQ, in a way I couldn't understand: Posted by Peter at Sunday, May 20, 12 comments: Guddling in the dark for a respiratory quotient 2.

I picked up this paper via Face-ache so cannot recall to whom I should credit for the find. The post is also highly speculative. Higher h Respiratory Quotient and Higher Spontaneous Physical Activity in Nighttime Eaters It's worth noting that the difference is small but probably biologically significant.

Statistically p is less than 0. Before we think about it we need some background. That comes from the same group in an earlier paper: Posted by Peter at Saturday, May 12, 21 comments: Nighttime Eaters have an elevated RQ on a given macro ratio diet.

Friday, April 13, AHA approved egg! One of the full size chickens miss-fired yesterday and produced this minute egg: Posted by Peter at Friday, April 13, 19 comments: Monday, April 09, Pasta for weight loss. This paper hit T'internet recently and has been cited all over the place: Effect of pasta in the context of low-glycaemic index dietary patterns on body weight and markers of adiposity: I've greyed it out so no-one is tempted to read it in full, the flavour is all you need: All authors have completed the Unified Competing Interest form available on request from the corresponding author and declare: His wife is an employee of Unilever Canada.

This a BMJ publication. The critical aspect to me is the publication date. Was it April the first? It should have been, except April the first this year was Easter Sunday.

Not even at BMJ do they hit the "publish" button on a Sunday morning. Easter Monday appears fair game and someone at BMJ appears to have been at work to hit said publish button on April the 2nd. Ah, the twists of fate produced by the lunacy of the movement of Easter through the calendar. I think someone at the BMJ may have a sense of humour. Reading the conflict of interest statement, I wonder if the authors do too and whether there was some collusion in the choice of publication date.

Otherwise it's not funny. Posted by Peter at Monday, April 09, 13 comments: Pasta for weight loss. Wednesday, March 21, Guddling in the dark for a respiratory quotient.

How can two groups of mice, on exactly the same chow, have different 24h averaged RQs, p less than 0.

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