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Meet The Victims of Herbalife. Le couple achète en une villa en Italie , près de Valpolicella [ 84 ]. Thank you for your support. En , la société atteint deux millions de dollars de chiffre d'affaires et ouvre une filiale au Canada. Movies can direct viewer's attention using the camera. Tomb Raider, le berceau de la vie , en Pour les 7 prochaines années, Herbalife USA se verra contrôlée par un organisme indépendant.

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Why Bill Ackman is Wrong About Herbalife

Le juge du district des États-Unis a refusé la demande d'Herbalife de classer l'affaire. Selon le juge, les allégations de l'ancien distributeur d'Herbalife sont suffisamment importantes pour aboutir à un procès. Le tribunal ne se prononce pas encore et donne à Herbalife l'occasion de démontrer qu'elle ne fonctionne pas dans ce système [ 27 ]. Herbalife fait donc signer des contrats aux distributeurs spécifiant qu'ils sont interdits de poursuivre Herbalife en justice [ 28 ].

Herbalife avait répondu à la décision de la cour de commerce en déclarant qu'elle estimait que le jugement comportait des erreurs factuelles et était basé sur une mauvaise interprétation de la loi et de son modèle de vente directe. La société avait fait appel le 8 mars [ 31 ]. Herbalife est présente en France depuis En janvier , le sénateur du Massachusetts , Ed Markey , a reçu plusieurs plaintes de résidents de son État.

Il a donc demandé une enquête sur les pratiques d'Herbalife comme un système pyramidal possible. Ce même mois, le journal New York Post rapporte que l'organisme de réglementation du Canada a lancé une enquête officielle concernant les plaintes d'un système pyramidal portées contre Herbalife [ 34 ].

En Chine, un rapport d'enquête du First Financial Daily chinois déclare qu'Herbalife est fortement soupçonnée de pratiquer un système pyramidal. Le porte-parole du ministère du Commerce de Chine a indiqué que le gouvernement favorable à la répression des opérations pyramidales et de la vente directe qui viole les règlements.

La vente multiniveau est interdite en Chine d'après l'article du New York Post [ 35 ]. En octobre , en raison d'une décision de justice, Herbalife doit payer 15 millions de dollars ainsi que jusqu'à 2,5 millions de dollars pour le retour des produits pour régler une bataille en recours collectif de 18 mois intentée par un ancien distributeur, qui accusait cette compagnie de vente pyramidale.

Herbalife doit changer son modèle d'affaire pour au moins 3 ans [ 5 ]. En juillet , Herbalife doit payer millions de dollars d'indemnité à ses distributeurs, suite à une enquête de la FTC Federal Trade Commission sur le système d'affaire qui avait débuté en mars Herbalife peut continuer à exercer ses activités et être exonéré d'accusation de vente pyramidale mais à la condition de profondément modifier son système. Les distributeurs devront être récompensés pour ce qu'ils vendent et non plus sur la base du nombre de personnes qu'ils recrutent.

Herbalife va devoir maintenant présenter de manière honnête combien ses membres peuvent gagner. La FTC a considéré que les pratiques étaient déloyales et trompeuses. Herbalife affirmait à ses membres qu'ils pouvaient gagner des milliers de dollars par mois mais l'enquête a révélé que les distributeurs ne gagnaient que peu ou pas d'argent.

Pour les 7 prochaines années, Herbalife USA se verra contrôlée par un organisme indépendant. Ces décisions de justice ne sont valables que pour les États-Unis [ 38 ]. En janvier , le gouvernement américain a ouvert une enquête pour savoir si Herbalife a violé les lois sur la corruption étrangère tout en menant des affaires en Chine [ 39 ] , [ 40 ]. En septembre , plusieurs plaignants ont déposé, en cour fédérale de Floride, un recours collectif contre Herbalife pour violation de la loi sur les pratiques commerciales déloyales, pour racket, pour fausses déclarations et tromperie.

Par le biais de mensonge et fausses déclarations, Herbalife garantirait la voie du succès financier qui change la vie si les membres participent à tous ses évènements payants. La voie du succès ne fut pas le cas d'après les plaignants, alors que ceux-ci ont dépensé plusieurs milliers de dollars chacun en participant à plus de évènements.

En décembre , les sénateurs d'Italie ont demandé au gouvernement d'examiner minutieusement le système commercial Herbalife, soupçonné d'être pyramidal. La société Herbalife est citée par le rapport pour l'année de Miviludes , organisme français chargé de lutter contre les dérives sectaires:.

Ignarro, membre du conseil scientifique, a accepté de participer à la conception de Niteworks, un supplément diététique, et de promouvoir ce produit, en échange d'un accord de royalties de plus d'un million de dollars. Ignarro a ensuite promu les ingrédients de Niteworks dans la revue Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences , sans y divulguer son intérêt financier personnel. Lorsque les liens financiers d'Ignarro avec Herbalife ont été dévoilés, la revue a publié une rétractation faisant état du conflit d'intérêts de celui-ci [ 46 ] , [ 47 ].

Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. La mise en forme de cet article est à améliorer août Les titres sont pré-formatés par le logiciel. Top-tier distributors are also eligible for the subjective and lucrative Mark Hughes bonus. It has always been hard to make money as an Herbalife distributor. That number excludes income distributors may make from retailing, but also fails to take into account any business expenses they may incur.

Ackman will later argue that a system so slanted toward rewarding the highest tiers—attainable only through recruiting—must be a pyramid scheme.

In May , Mark Hughes, 44, was found dead in his bedroom. In two private equity firms—W. They went looking for a turnaround team to spruce it up and take it public again. A headhunter approached Michael Johnson, then in his 17th year at Disney. But the private equity guys promised him he would be in control, stressed that it was about nutrition, and offered him a slice of the company. In April , Johnson made the move. Johnson tried to quickly launch a new product without consulting the distributors.

And they deeply mistrusted him. What does he know? A lot of them felt that when the company went public I would exit. The company could annul their distributorship, but that meant forfeiting a business the distributor had built over years.

If expelled, the distributor might take his whole downline—sometimes thousands of people—to another MLM. Top Herbalife distributors ran several dozen such side businesses at the time. They worked like this. They, in turn, would contact the prospective recruits and send them a video that showed testimonials of top distributors describing astounding wealth they had purportedly amassed in very little time and with no discernible skills.

Herbalife shut down Newest Way to Wealth in , before CEO Johnson was hired, and reached a tentative settlement of the suit a few months after he got there. That fall, he considered quitting. He went to see his mentor, Jerry Perenchio, who was then chairman of Univision. Perenchio asked him a series of rhetorical questions, Johnson recalls: You can stick your tail between your legs and go back to Disney, or you can go in there and exercise your desires and will.

The plan was about product, brand, image, and the business opportunity. The company needed its own upgraded manufacturing facilities, he felt, plus labs to ensure that the products really contained the herbs the labels claimed they did. To tout the brand, Johnson wanted to sponsor sporting events, teams, and star athletes. It now sponsors more than of them, including Cristiano Ronaldo, the Portuguese soccer star.

Finally, and most important, Johnson wanted changes in the way the business opportunity was pursued. That meant curbing some practices while also embracing positive ideas being urged by other distributors, he says.

At a videotaped global management retreat in June , viewed by Fortune , Johnson appeared to walk a tightrope, discussing the need for these changes while trying not to alienate powerful distributors.

It puts distributors in debt up to their ears. Johnson also wanted to embrace changes being urged by two top distributors, which were designed to reduce the high rates of turnover then being experienced among level-five distributors—those beginning to pursue the business. The company phased in changes. It rolled out its own online software tools, supplanting those sold by distributors.

Herbalife charged less and could exercise control over content. Over time, most top distributors exited that business. The rule changes easing the qualification hurdles for level-five distributors were introduced on a test basis in Russia in , and then globally in As a result, according to statistics provided by Walsh, the percentage of U. Purchasing patterns also changed, these statistics show. Throughout the Johnson era, the size of the average purchase has been getting smaller, while the number of orders has been increasing.

Though the impetus for the changes was apparently not regulatory, its impact could be. In an Herbalife distributor introduced nutrition clubs into the U. The charge entitled the customer to consume on premises servings of three prepared Herbalife products: Herbalife CEO Johnson first heard about nutrition clubs three years earlier, he says, when certain distributors were complaining about them.

Johnson and Walsh went to look at a club in Zacatecas, Mexico. Today there are about 6, nutrition clubs in the U. Herbalife nutrition club owner Edgar Montalban, shown in June , prepares a meal-replacement shake in Queens, N. They became particularly popular in Spanish-speaking communities of the U. As successful as the model was, not everyone was thrilled with it. Because the clubs let Herbalife sell its products and business opportunity to lower socioeconomic strata than had been previously possible—more vulnerable populations—a former financial journalist named Christine Richard found them to be diabolical.

By the summer of , indeed, Richard had concluded that a great deal was wrong with Herbalife. Above all, she thought, it was a pyramid scheme. Richard worked for the Indago Group, a research boutique that sold much of its work to short-sellers. When Richard first spoke to investors about shorting Herbalife, many were wary, she recounts in an interview. In , Ackman took a massive public short position predicated on the audacious theory that the then triple-A-rated bond insurer MBIA—whose guarantees were propping up the ratings of countless other financial obligations that Wall Street was flogging across the globe—was catastrophically overleveraged and destined to collapse.

She declined, and the call ended. At lunch afterward DeSimone went from table to table. At one, the woman next to him, who turned out to be Richard, started asking him similar questions. Einhorn is widely revered as perhaps the smartest investor on the Street. The company realized he might be preparing a public short. After its May 1 earnings announcement, Herbalife executives took questions by phone. If Einhorn was contemplating a public short, DeSimone says, he felt that was material information the public ought to have.

It was a variant of the same questions Richard and Schulman had been asking. Herbalife had no lawyer in the room. Live complex, just across from the Staples Center. They had allies inside the hall with open phone lines. But Einhorn was just messing with their heads. Which posed a quandary for Bill Ackman. Then Einhorn never surfaced. Ackman deliberated for months whether to go public, he says, preparing possible presentations.

And then in September, and then in November. Most of these put buyers were effectively betting that the stock would drop markedly sometime before Dec. He had simply borrowed common stock and sold it—the conventional short position. There was a lot about Herbalife that was suspicious. How could that be? What the company really sold in all these countries, Ackman explained, was not Formula 1 but a fictitious business opportunity. Then he played a creepy, officially produced Herbalife video.

Subsequently, however, CEO Johnson had started toning down such claims, voluntarily disclosing the average gross compensation the company paid its distributors and requiring that income testimonials include disclaimers at least in the U. The FTC, for its part, does not require such disclosures, nor explain how comprehensive they must be, if provided. At the time of the presentation, Herbalife was already a well-known name on Wall Street.

It had enjoyed 12 straight record quarters, and its stock had quadrupled in the previous two years. Then there was the issue of timing. Ackman presented just 11 days before the end of the year, when hedge fund positions are marked to market for the year. Given the holiday season, there was no way Herbalife could respond that calendar year. In that context, the bit about Ackman foregoing personal profit struck some as disingenuous.

He explained on his blog: As for the notion that Herbalife was desperately expanding into foreign countries because of market saturation, the company had a simple answer: A Container bottle and tablets. B Packs of aloe extract. Anti-HBs IgG was positive. Autoimmune markers were all negative. Abdominal ultrasonography showed reduced echogenicity of liver. Dilatation of intra- or extrahepatic bile ducts was absent. Liver biopsy revealed moderate portal infiltrates consisting of eosinophilis, neutrophils, and monocytes.

There were inflammatory cell infiltration and acidophil body on the hepatic lobule. There was no bile stasis Fig. Histopathological findings of the liver. Aloe tablets was immediately discontinued. ALT as well as total bilirubin gradually returned to normal level over several weeks Fig. Upon discontinuation of the oral aloe preparation, liver enzymes returned to normal level.

Case 2 A yr-old female patient was presented to our department with a week history of fatigue. The patient did not take any alcohol or durgs. She had taken aloe powder containing mg of an extract of Aloe vera Fig. Physical examination revealed jaundice on her sclera. She was the sales person of the aloe product she was taking.

Abdominal ultrasonography was normal. Liver biopsy revealed severe portal and lobular infiltrates consisting of neutrophils and monocytes. There were several acidophilic bodies and ballooning cell change in hepatic lobule.

There were bile-stasis and bile stained Kupffer cells Fig. Aloe extract was immediately discontinued. We explained to her about the aloe-induced hepatotoxity and advised not to take it anymore.

However, the patient started taking the same aloe extract again 1 month after her discharge from the hospital. Since a hepatitis recurred after re-challenge of aloe extract, we could confirm her diagnosis as aloe-induced toxic hepatitis.

The type of liver injury was determined as 'hepatocellular' since R ratio was After re-challenge arrow , liver enzymes go up again. Six months later, the patient was presented to our department with a 2 week history of jaundice. We recommended admission, but she refused to be admitted and she never visited our hospital again.

Case 3 A yr-old female patient was presented to our department with a 3 month history of epigastric discomfort. The patient did not take any alcohol or drugs.

She had taken aloe extracts Fig. On admission, the patient's physical examination was normal except mild tenderness on epigastric area. Autoimmune markers were negative. Abdominal ultrasonography showed increased echogenicity of liver. After 4 days, she visited our department for follow-up. The major driving force for the growth of the dietary supplements market is the perception that 'they are safe because they are natural'. However, the recently reported cases of hepatotoxicity induced by natural substances 8 indicate that natural substances may not be entirely safe.

There are about species of aloe. Among them, particularly aloe vera has been used in phytomedicine. There have been positive reports on aloe vera as anti-inflammatory, anticancer, analgesic, anti-aging as well as liver protective.

But, clinical effectiveness of aloe vera was not sufficiently defined because there were no large and randomized studies 9. In , Korea's National Institute of Safety Research conducted an experiment on the efficacy and toxicity of aloe There was no difference of natural killer cell activity between the aloe vera gel treated and control animals. To observe the toxicity of aloe gel, rats were given the high dose aloe orally. Any adverse effects were not detected in hematological test, serum biochemistry, and histopathological examination.

There are no specific tests or diagnostic criteria for herbinduced hepatic injury. Careful history taking, laboratory finding, and histopathology are used to diagnose it. The best way to determine causing agent is re-challenging.

But it is not ethical and not applicable. Since patients usually do not regard dietary supplements as 'real' medicine, they may fail to mention it when physicians query medication history. Physicians should keep in mind that dietary supplements can be the cause of hepatotoxicity when querying medication history, and should educate the lay public. There are three types of acute liver injury by drug or herb Our cases are characterized as hepatocellular; there is a predominant initial elevation of the ALT level.

There are two proposed pathogeneses of drug induced liver disease It is more likely that an idiosyncratic immunological mechanism hypersensitivity is responsible for the cases. A role for hypersensitivity is further supported by the presence of eosinophilic granulocytes in the periportal fields seen in the biopsy.

Hypersensitivity to aloe has been described in humans 14 , and the patch test or allergic skin test showed positive results Herb induced liver injury is an important problem in clinical setting, because it can be an etiology of undiagnosed acute hepatitis.

However, there are few available data about the incidence and clinical manifestation of dietary supplements such as aloe. Our cases emphasize that physicians should consider various dietary supplements as causative agents for hepatotoxicity. Food and Drug Statistical Yearbook. Korea Food and Drug Administration. Aug, [accessed 0ct 27]. The survey for the actual condition of drug medication and development of health care cost associated with toxic liver injury in Korean: Acute hepatitis induced by an aloe vera preparation: Aloe vera-induced acute toxic hepatitis in a healthy young man.

Eur J Intern Med. Oral aloe vera-induced hepatitis. Criteria of drug-induced liver disorders. Report of an international consensus meeting. Vogler BK, Ernst E. Br J Gen Pract. Studies of the effectiveness and toxicity of aloe vera gel. The report of National Institute of Safety Research. Clinical features and diagnosis of drug induced liver injury. Pathologic features of toxic and drug induced liver injury.

A case of hypersensitivity associated with oral aloe agent. J Asthma Allergy Clin Immunol. Herbalife, Liver, Hepatotoxicity, Weight loss products, Dietary supplements. Case 1 involved a patient who did not consume Herbalife products, while Cases 2 and 3 each reportedly consumed various Herbalife products. Herbalife fundamentally disagrees with the conclusions made by the authors with regard to any cause and effect relationship related to the intake of Herbalife products.

First, Herbalife is not a single product and no unique suspect product or ingredient has been implicated in this paper amongst the reported cases.

In addition, the authors arbitrarily compared cases involving the use of a single product Hydroxycut with patients who consumed a group of totally unrelated products produced by the company Herbalife. To bundle a brand of products such as Herbalife with another company that sells different products simply because they are all dietary supplements is not valid.

Finally, there are specific considerations, in regard to the two patients who consumed Herbalife products, that would render many of the observations and conclusions discussed by the authors as speculative and unsubstantiated.

The specific and factual points supporting these views are further detailed below. Case 2 describes a year-old female who developed symptoms of abdominal pain, mild nausea, and painless jaundice 1 mo prior to presenting at the hospital[ 1 ]. Several pertinent negatives were disclosed by the authors, including autoimmune markers and viral serology.

According to the authors, the patient did not report any pre-existing medical conditions for which the onset had preceded the use of Herbalife products. This opinion contradicts repeated statements by the authors that acute liver injury in each case report was due to the use of herbal weight loss products. In addition, the etiology of the pre-existing condition was not identified by the authors, and there was no discussion regarding the role of the condition in the acute onset of her symptoms.

Furthermore, the dosage and frequency at which this patient consumed Herbalife products is unknown. In the absence of the aforementioned data, the exclusion of possible differential diagnoses is not well-supported. Case 3 describes a year-old female who developed symptoms of painless jaundice and pruritus 3 wk prior to presenting at the hospital[ 1 ]. The authors further stated that the patient had not been prescribed any new medications, which implies that she may have been taking other agents concomitantly.

However, information regarding the use of concomitant medications, or the conditions for which she may have been receiving treatment, was not disclosed. In addition to the absence of the aforementioned pertinent patient data, there are various refutable facts that remain in regard to the comments and conclusions made by the authors.

In their WJH article, the authors concluded that it was difficult to isolate a single ingredient or mechanism associated with acute liver injury for either patient consuming Herbalife products[ 1 ]. In an effort to discuss potential causative agents for the reported conditions in these patients, the authors extraneously reference previously published case reports involving Herbalife products, including those of two consumers who reportedly developed hepatotoxicity following exposure to Bacillus subtilis B.

In review of this reference, it has been noted that there were various critical deficiencies in the scientific methodology used to isolate B. Neither patient reported symptoms consistent with classical B. Furthermore, the investigators did not enumerate the levels of B.

This was a crucial step missing in the reported investigation as all previous documented reports find that high levels of the organism must be consumed to cause illness. Herbalife products, consumed by the patients described in the WJH article, to date show no evidence of B. This bacterium is actually ubiquitous in nature and generally recognized as safe with a history of safe use in food, and is considered to be safe for the production of enzymes or ingredients for use in food[ 3 ].

There have been reported cases of B. Therefore, it is highly unlikely that B. The WJH authors also suggest intentional or incidental contamination of Herbalife ingredients and identify various potential sources, including unrefined raw herbal extracts, heavy metals, pesticides, and additives[ 1 ]. However, some of the additives mentioned as potential contaminants by the authors e.

In addition, authors also reference an article from that reviews possible contamination sources inherent to herbal remedies marketed without proper quality control measures in place[ 5 ].

Herbalife is not specifically implicated in the referenced article, yet the authors imply that Herbalife product contamination and lack of quality control contributed to the liver injury.

Herbalife has rigorous processes in place concerning quality control, including extensive safety reviews based on existing literature for product ingredients, testing to confirm that labeled ingredients are present in finished goods, and to assure all tested ingredients meet product specifications on an ongoing basis. In addition to complying with cGMP regulations, Herbalife acts in accordance with other generally recognized industry standards or requirements by sourcing and testing raw materials to further ensure that the final product complies with specifications for identity, purity, potency and contaminants.

The authors also try to implicate the Camellia sinensis C. The most important safety consideration for green tea is the extraction method. The historical data supporting the safety of green tea is based on the consumption of an aqueous extract over thousands of years, specifically, the typical three cups per day that are commonly consumed in Asian countries.

Aqueous extracts of green tea are quite different from solvent extractions, which are commonly used to concentrate select fractions of green tea, such as EGCG or caffeine. Again, the WJH authors have not considered the clinical significance of potential differences in raw material processing amongst manufacturers, controls for contamination and identification of raw materials, and the implication of these differences when reviewing published case reports of liver injury.

In addition, the authors state that Herbalife has refused to provide detailed analyses of ingredients and formulations, although no attempt was made by these authors to contact Herbalife to obtain further information regarding Herbalife products or ingredients. Herbalife has, to date, remained compliant with all formal regulatory requests and requirements for product information.

The authors state that significant liver injury induced by herbal supplements is a rare event[ 1 ]. This statement is true as approximately 20 to 50 percent of all cases presenting as hepatotoxicity are cryptogenic leading to the incidental association of liver disease with a group of products in the absence of specific evidence[ 5 ].

While this disease is the most common cause of drug withdrawal during post-marketing surveillance, it is an uncommon cause of liver disease. The background incidence of hepatotoxicity in populations is clearly comparable to the reported incidence of immunoallergic and individualistic reactions to allergens in foods, supplements, or the environment.

While the spectrum of liver diseases may well have changed since when this survey was done, idiopathic liver disease remains a significant percentage of all cases. Therefore, it is particularly important in making such associations to have incontrovertible evidence such as is often available for prescription drugs where, under controlled conditions, a cause-effect relationship can be established. Finally, the authors also state that existing case reports of dietary supplement-induced hepatotoxicity include patients with pre-existing liver disease and that weight loss supplements could worsen such conditions in these patients.

In conclusion, the reference to Herbalife products as contaminated and generally comparable to all dietary supplements or weight loss products is not scientifically supported. Further information regarding patient histories, concomitant medications and other compounds, dechallenge results, and product specifications and usage is indicated to assess fully the association of Herbalife products in the WJH case reports.

Acute liver injury induced by weight-loss herbal supplements. The occurrence of new hepatic disorders in a defined population. Christopher Pascale Posted on Dec 21, Herbalife is a publicly traded company based out of Los Angeles, California. Since it has allowed people the opportunity to become independent sales reps with the opportunity to lead others to do the same in the form of multi-level marketing, or network marketing. Like any large organization with several decades of experience, there are some controversies behind this one.

Along with these legal matters are much more pressing health concerns. Several medical resources have found that Herbalife products may actually cause hepatitis.

What is Hepatitis and How is it Caused? Hepatitis can be characterized as an inflammation of the liver. One visible symptom is jaundice, and less visible ones are lack of appetite and a feeling of overall discomfort. Hepatitis is typically caused by a virus, but it can also be caused by toxins when taken regularly, such as alcohol or an infection that is already present.

The question on many people's minds regarding Herbalife products would be, how could these products be linked to infecting those who take them? The answer is in the ingredients. There has to be something toxic in some or all of the products released by the company, but it is hard to know which ones because the FDA does not regulate herbal supplements the same way it does medicine. This is why athletes find out via heart attack that ephedrine is not so great, and how health conscious people discover that they may be poisoning themselves the hard way, as reported in a article published in The Journal of Hepatology titled " Herbal Does not Mean Innocuous.

This is because some people go on the attack against networking companies because they think they are dangerous or terrible, and some governments are anti-capitalistic , so they would be against a company like Herbalife because they do not want their people to have too much freedom and control.

In , 12 patients in Israeli hospitals with severe liver problems had one thing in common. They were taking an Herbalife supplement that aided digestion. When their liver enzymes normalized, they resumed their normal regimen of the product and were sick again.

The article noted from the European Journal of Hepatology had several sources, one of which was medical professionals from Switzerland. In it, the ten most severe cases covered showed two patients with "certain causality" while the other eight had "probable causality.

The objective here is not to demonize a company or industry, but to alert consumers that when Herbalife distributors pitch the quality of their products, they may be pitching high-end hepatitis.

And while the ingredients linked to causing disease in the past may have been rid of, it does not mean that today's products are safe.

Without FDA interaction, humans are the test subjects for herbal supplements. The best way to go when it comes to supplements is to use one with a long track record of not hurting its users. On December 23, George Fischer and one of his doctors had a conference call with me. During the course of that conversation, they promised that they would send me information contradicting the reporting in the Journal of Hepatology.

No such contact has been made since. J Hepatol 0: Ten cases of severe hepatotoxicity associated with dietary. Contrary to the claims of many sellers of supplements including bad advice from health food stores , we should strive to get most of our nutrients from produce not pills, though there are rare diseases that require supplementation. There are tens of thousands of phytonutrients in plants that can display synergistic effects and have not been successfully isolated efficaciously in supplement form.

For example iron , which is important during pregnancy , may be harmful in pill form. Similarly, folate in beans and greens is preferable to folic acid in pills.

Flax seed , but not flax seed oil , lowers cholesterol. Citrulline supplements may aid erectile dysfunction, but a better source is watermelon. Similarly, eating soy foods , rather than taking soy supplements, may reduce the risk of breast cancer recurrence.

And it is whole produce , not pills, which has been shown to increase physical attractiveness. However, for those on plant-based diets , there are two vitamins not produced by plants that may require supplementation. They are vitamin D from sun but not from tanning beds see also here , here , here , here , here , here , here and vitamin B12 see also here , here , here , here , here. Among vegans , B12 deficiency is an epidemic if no supplements are used, which can have devastating consequences for their infants see also here.

Another nutrient vegans should keep an eye on is iodine , which is especially important during pregnancy though harmful in too too great quantities. One of the most commonly used supplements is fish oil.

It has been found to contain DDT as well as other industrial pollutants , including high levels of dioxin, PCBs and mercury which are neural and cardiac toxins. Instead, there are safe plant sources of omega-3 ; alternatives include algae and yeast derived EPA and DHA , which also lower inflammation. A variety of other potentially harmful supplements exist including:

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