Dog's Digestive System

Reptile Classification

Bearded Dragon Food
So, what does all of this have to do with my reptile's health? Common Feeding Problems Failure of a reptile to feed may be due to one or more of several possible reasons. It is not advisable to keep more than one to two animals in a single enclosure. Glucose transport in birds -- In contrast with regulation of intestinal glucose transport in mammals, amphibians and fish, intestinal glucose transport does not change with dietary carbohydrate in most birds. A microbe imbalance can also be promoted by feeding a dog improperly.

ADDITIONAL MEDIA

Amphibians & Reptiles

Have a great day,. The second one was 62 g. Thanks again for steering us in the right direction as in feeding them great quality live feeders'. Thank you so, so much for your quality live feeders! I will never purchase my Beardie's food anywhere else! We can even enjoy bath time now as its meant for - relaxing - and not stressfull digestion.

I don't want to know what was in the pet store feeders after seeing the difference in his health from your feeders. Thanks a million, Adrienne". Prices posted in this website are subject to change without notice. If by chance you find dead grubs upon opening the box please email photo same day for credit on your next order.

Processing and shipping of your order may be delayed when temperatures go below 45 F 8 C or above 75 F 23 C. Why keep on buying poorly kept, malnourished feeders from the local pet store, at higher prices, that will often die on you in just a few days, when you can get the 1 Best High-Quality, healthy, Gut-Loaded Live Feeder Grubs from The Worm Lady Check out our Sale Specials You'll not only Get Top Quality Live Feeders, at a fraction of the cost, shipped direct to your doorstep via ' Purolator Express Overnight' Service , with our ' Iron-Clad Live Delivery Guarantee ', you'll also be giving your pets a healthier, happier and longer life with the best feeders available.

All cricket orders and other worm orders may be delayed when temperatures go below 11 C 50 F - cold increases mortality. Crickets, super worms, silkworms and horn worms. All of our Live Feeders Insects, and reptiles for sale have an Ironclad Live Arrival Guarantee , so when you buy Live Feeders or any live animal for that matter you can trust it will safely be delivered right to your doorstep. In the unlikely event that your feeders arrive in bad shape or DOA, we will require proof in the form of pictures or video of the dead, sick or injured product and an explanation of the situation, within 8 hours of receiving your order.

We will accept digital pictures as proof of the problem. Once we determine that you have a valid claim, we will replace the DOA feeders with your next order. Under no circumstances is The Worm Lady able to refund payment, and the buyer is responsible for any and all shipping charges associated with the replacements.

There is no point at all in spending money on insects and worms that have not themselves received appropriate nutrition. Feed as many different healthy things as you can find see: Buy live feeders, worms and crickets, that are already 'gut loaded' and full of moisture and nutrients.

What do reptiles eat? There is a huge difference between feeding When you buy your live feeders ask yourself I"m talking about proper, 'feeder-specific' nutrition. At The Worm Lady we ensure that everything we ship has been raised with fresh, nutritious chow and that they receive adequate moisture every day. Their substrate what they live in and eat is cleaned regularly.

There is NO overcrowding and we ensure optimal ventilation for healthy insects. It is a fact that improperly kept and improperly fed live feeders result in poor nutritional quality, and can even cause illness for your pets and added expense for you. We always ship your order of feeders with a little food for the voyage.

It is our aim to deliver to you top quality live feeders at an excellent price, and to always follow through with prompt and courteous customer service. Further down below we've listed and described our live feeders in order of nutrition - with the best being number one - the lowest number 8, and trust that this will help you in making wise decisions when you are buying live feeders for your reptiles,.

If along with your regular order you're only wanting to try one or two horn worms, or silkworms, or a dozen 'BSFL', please, just let us know. P ratio see the description. NO need to dust your other feeder insects when this is the staple diet.

Iron-Clad Live delivery guaranteed regardless of the destination weather conditions. The larvae have voracious appetites and can be used for composting household food scraps and agricultural waste products in warm climates of 80F F. Black soldier fly larvae BSFL are an excellent source of sustainable protein for aqua culture, animal feed, pet and human nutrition. They are truly a Maintenance-Free grub and can last weeks in the larva stage when kept dormant at F.

I want to send a big thank-you for your service and quality of dew worms we received from you mid-July. Our fishing trip was so successful because of how lively and fresh the worms were. The rest of the camp was jealous of our quantity and shape of our worms.

Trout Worms Fishing Bait. Many people believe that there is no such thing as too much calcium in a reptile's diet, especially, when it is through supplementation. This is definitely not true. Calcium in high doses can act as a binder, which inhibits the absorption of essential nutrients such as other essential minerals, as well as vitamins. In the presence of too much Vitamin D, excess Calcium can calcify the internal organs, liver and kidneys.

Calcium neutralizes stomach acids, which are necessary for the digestion and absorption of all nutrients. Many drugs have warnings to not take them with an antacid because it can prevent the drug from being absorbed into the system.

Giving a large dose of calcium all at once is not the same as giving a smaller amount with every second feeding. It's generally agreed across the vertebrate world, that an inclusion ratio of 2: This is a common ratio measured in healthy bone analysis of most vertebrates including humans.

To err to the high side with calcium is generally much easier to metabolize than a diet that has less than a 2: Feed a Silkworm times week to provide a balanced diet. More Calcium and Hydration requirements information continued below on this page Bubba having her lunch of 28 worms: When temperatures are lower then 7 C, or higher than 25 C we may elect to wait to ship until temperatures return the the Safe-Zone.

If you still want your order shipped using a slower service 2 or more days there is NO Live Delivery Guarantee - your are assuming the risk of DOA grubs and we assume no liability whatsoever for any dead insects. Wed, Apr 29, at Almost no DOA, lasted, without mysteriously dying off, for weeks and any that did were likely due to me not knowing how to keep them alive properly - yet! And my Beardie and Geckos loved them! I need another shipment. Really, compared to the big box pet stores, and even the specialty ones I tried here in Toronto, The Worm Lady is far superior.

I have sent the funds by email. Annie relaxing with princess Cleopatra Please note that your order will ship Canada Post Overnight Next-Day only when temperatures are forecast to stay around 44 F 7 C for a minimum of 2 consecutive days We compost all our organic waste for use in our organic vegetable garden and flower beds.

We also raise our Live Feeders on organic live foods. This is your assurance that you are getting the healthiest and the best quality live feeders for your pets - and our small contribution in the preservation of our local eco-system. Sunday July 20, - 9: Absolute Essentials for healthy herps When you order your live feeders from me I always do my absolute best to ensure an over-count, prompt next-day delivery - whenever possible, proper and personal attention to each order, and well-fed, healthy live feeders to you - my customers.

Excellent nutrition and responsible husbandry must be combined to ensure the health of your reptiles. You can be feeding the most perfectly balanced diet in existence, but without the optimum temperature gradient, that 'perfect diet' is not able to be properly digested. Reptiles are cold blooded animals so they require heat in order to digest their foods. If this temperature requirement is not met the food will simply rot in their gut and not be digested, resulting in elevated uric acid levels, and an acidic blood pH level causing detrimental damage to your reptile.

Digestion is not only impaired by improper heat requirements, but lack of hydration can also have adverse effects on digestion as well. Water consumption is often overlooked when thinking about digestion, but without proper amounts of water intake the process of digestion can be halted , thus, causing serious damage to your reptiles.

If you have a picky eater who will not eat a good variety of live feeders for a properly balanced diet you should try some of the Repashy Superfoods Meal Replacement products.

These were scientifically formulated to return your pet to optimum health, and keep him healthy for the long term too!

Organically Raised Live Feeders: Our beardies love being out and about so we take them with us everywhere we go The order did arrive the next day and was in perfect condition.

I would like another Phoenix worms and 20 silkworms. Saturday August 2, - Anyway - getting back to hydration: An example of water intake is through the ingestion of insects. Insects alone can provide a large amount of water to aid in the hydration of your reptile. In their natural habitat the early morning dew that is apparent in many arid lands is yet another method of water consumption, and for the herbivores, they will get much of their hydration from consuming plant material.

As you can see, besides the obvious rain and access to running water there are many other means in which a reptile can get the moisture it requires. Reptiles in their natural habitat have learned to adapt to natural ways of maintaining proper hydration. However, when housed in captivity the reptiles are not able to resort to most of the methods listed above since they are at the mercy of their keeper to provide them with the proper environment.

Fast forward to the dry terrarium with glass sides, a screen top and a basking light … Even a desert adapted reptile can quickly become dehydrated and die in an enclosure like this. In such a situation it's up to the keeper to provide the moisture to the reptiles, and often, it is in an 'unnatural form' via misting, soaking, a water bowl or a combination of these three methods.

The point is that a dehydrated reptile cannot assimilate the best of meals so without the proper hydration the absorption of nutrition really suffers. This is why Live Foods are so important as they provide much needed hydration. Now that we understand that proper heat and hydration is an important part of the key to success I can now begin expounding on the importance of nutrition.

The first goal on the way to great health is to attain and maintain a blood pH in the alkaline range of 6. Without it, the body becomes acidic due to the gradual depletion of its mineral reserves and all types of health stresses can occur, both in reptiles and in humans too!.

Most reptile keepers are familiar with Vitamin D in regards to calcium powder, which in most cases is used to 'dust' the insects, coating them with a fine white powder. It can also be used in other ways, such as being mixed into a salad for herbivores, sprinkled on a pellet diet, or in the case of mixed right into the powdered diet.

Since reptiles are viewed more as a specialty pet little research has been done in regards to their nutritional requirements. The product degradation is also a major concern and factor to consider. There are various views on what vitamins should be mixed with a calcium supplement and how the mixture of vitamins can be effected by the minerals. Although there are many views on this subject very little research has been done mainly due to the fact that there is just not a competitive market for their foods like there is with dogs and cats.

To most people the keeping of Reptiles is not mainstream, which means that there is little monetary motivation to understanding their unique nutritional requirements. Balance is a major key. How the hummingbird tongue really works with videos. Close encounters with possible prey. You want to live 10—20 years. You are peering under leaves, poking into rolled ones, searching around stems, exploring bark crevices and other insect hiding places. Abruptly an eye appears, 1—5 cm from your bill.

The eye or a portion of it is half seen, obstructed, shadowed, partly out of focus, more or less round, multicolored, and perhaps moving. Now, a safe few meters away, are you going to go back to see whether that was food? Associated body patterns often suggest other head and facial features, which in turn enhance the eye-like nature of the spots.

None of these patterns exactly matches the eyes or face of any particular species of predator; but, even when quickly and partially glimpsed, all give the illusion of an eye or face. These false eyes are mimicking the eyes and faces of such predators of insect-eating birds as snakes, lizards, other birds, and small mammals, as perceived at close range by the insectivorous birds in their natural world. Note the distended throat of this American Kestrel.

Pigeons generally lay two eggs one day apart, which hatch 18 days after they are laid. A similar substance is produced by flamingos and male Emperor Penguins. The normal function of the crop is food storage. Pigeon 'milk' also contains IgA antibodies and antioxidants carotenoids.

The avian stomach is divided into 2 parts:. Photomicrograph 50X of a cross section through the proventriculus showing folds of mucous membrane P ; deep proventricular glands GP ; capsule connective tissue around the glands arrow head ; muscle layer m ; serosa connective tissue with blood vessels S , and the lumen L From: Photomicrograph X of longitudinal section of the gizzard showing folds of mucous membrane lined by simple prismatic epithelium P ; simple tubular glands Gs in the lamina propria constituted by connective tissue Lp ; secretion of glands S that are continuous with the cuticle or koilin ; C , part of muscle layer m , interpersed with bundles of connective tissue Tc From: Photomicrograph X of the koilin of an Eclectus Parrot Eclectus roratus.

Note the regular, columnated structure of the koilin layer K and its association with the glandular epithelium E of the ventriculus From: De Voe et al. A, koilin, B, crypts, C, glands that secrete koilin, D, epithelial surface, E, desquamated epithelial cells, 2 Mucosa of the gizzard. A, koilin, B, secretion in gland lumens and crypts, and 3 Koilin layer. A, secretion column, B, koilin-layer surface, C, horizontal stripe indicating a 'pause' in secretion of the koilin, D, cellular debris.

Eglitis and Knouff Vultures of the seas -- Animals are primarily limited by their capacity to acquire food, yet digestive performance also conditions energy acquisition, and ultimately fitness. Optimal foraging theory predicts that organisms feeding on patchy resources should maximize their food loads within each patch, and should digest these loads quickly to minimize travelling costs between food patches.

GPS-tracking of 40 Wandering Albatrosses from the Crozet archipelago during the incubation phase confirmed foraging movements of between — km, giving the birds access to a variety of prey, including fishery wastes. Using miniaturized, autonomous data recorders placed in the stomach of three birds, the first-ever measurements of gastric pH and temperature in procellariformes were obtained. Such low stomach pH gives Wandering Albatrosses a strategic advantage because it allows a rapid chemical breakdown of ingested food and rapid digestion.

This is useful for feeding on patchy, natural prey, but also on fishery wastes, which might be an important additional food resource for Wandering Albatrosses. It is likely that this physiological characteristic evolved as a response to a diet largely composed of squid, and to a patchy distribution of this food resource resulting in large, infrequent meals. The strategy of Wandering Albatrosses is to cover long distances rapidly and at low costs to increase the probability of encountering dispersed prey patches whose distribution is unpredictable.

Knots with large gizzards consumed far more molluscs with shells than the birds with smaller gizzards. Birds with smaller gizzards simply couldn't feed fast enough. By allowing them to crush more shell per gizzard-full, larger gizzards gave birds the edge.

Thus, even though it is energetically costly for the knots to maintain a larger gizzard, when the bird needs to get the most out of its crunchy diet, it's a price worth paying. So, the birds' gizzards enlarge as they fatten for migration. Because the molluscs' shells stay the same size as the molluscs shrink, the amount of shell a bird must process to eat its fill also increases.

But with their larger gizzards, the birds can still make the most of even the crunchiest winter diet! Within 14 days, they showed a doubling of the size of their gizzards. Red Knots have strong muscular gizzards for feeding on molluscs. A shift back to a mussel diet induced about a doubling in gizzard mass in just a few days. As the knots were fed progessively smaller mussels day 22 to day 46 that are easier to crush, gizzard mass again declined.

A switch back to a soft food pellet diet caused a further decline in gizzard mass. Finally, a switch back to a mussel diet again cause a rapid increase in gizzard mass From: Piersma and Drent Ostrich Struthio camelus stomach. Note how particle size of material in the gizzard ventriculus is smaller than in the proventriculus due to the grinding action of the muscular walls plus small pebbles gastroliths. The capacity to reduce particle size is related to the metabolic demands of a species.

Therefore, particle size reduction is often considered the key digestive difference between ecto- and endotherms that allows endotherms to rely on shorter digesta retention times without losing digestive efficiency, and hence facilitate the high level of food intake necessary to meet their increased metabolic requirements.

In contrast, adaptations for chewing intrinsically increase the weight of the head. The use of the gizzard system has the potential advantages that intake rate is not limited by chewing, that no investment in dental tissue is necessary, and that dental wear is not a determinant of senescence as observed in mammals.

The absence of age-dependent tooth wear might even be a contributing factor to the slower onset of senescence in birds as compared to mammals. On the other hand, the use of a gizzard requires the intake of suitable grit or stones—an action that represents, in the few studies where this has actually been quantified in birds, a relevant proportion of feeding time Fritz et al.

Gastrointestinal tracts of a carnivorous hawk, an omnivorous chicken, and 4 herbivorous birds. Note larger size of crop in omnivore and herbivores, and particularly in hoatzin. Ceca are small in hawks and relatively large in grouse. Although ceca are relatively small in Hoatzins , Emus, and Ostriches, an expanded foregut Hoatzins , a much longer midgut Emus , or a much longer colon Ostriches compensates for this From: Stevens and Hume Over-reliance on the passive pathway provides metabolic advantages and ecological constraints.

It does provide birds with an absorptive process that can deal with rapid and large changes in intestinal sugar concentrations. The passive pathway is also energetically inexpensive to maintain and modulate.

However, passive absorption through the paracellular pathway is dependent on concentration gradients. In the absence of a transport system that selects which materials to absorb, this non-discriminatory pathway may also increase vulnerability to toxins, and thus constrain foraging behavior and limit the breadth of the dietary niche of the birds.

Another problem is that when luminal sugar concentrations are lower than those in plasma, glucose may diffuse back into the lumen. Cross-section of the intestine ileum of a Spotted Tinamou Nothura maculosa.

Villi are lined with columnar epithelium EP , including goblet cells arrows that secrete mucus. The muscle layer includes longitudinal fibers MI on the perimeter, circular fibers Mc , and additional longitudinal fibers at the base of the villi muscularis muscosae; MM From: Chikilian and de Speroni Blue-headed Parrots at clay lick.

Meyer-Rochow and Gal determined that the pressures involved could be approximated if they knew the 1 distance the feces traveled, 2 density and viscosity of the material, and 3 shape, aperture, and height of the anus above ground. How penguins choose the direction of defecation, and how wind direction factors into that decision, remain unknown. Avian Pancreas tissue Source: The Avian Digestive Tract.

Avian geophagy and soil characteristics in southeastern Peru. Luminal morphology of the avian lower intestine: Histological aspects of the stomach proventriculus and gizzard of the Red-capped Cardinal Paroaria gularis gularis. Comparative study of the digestive system of three species of tinamou.

Crypturellus tataupa, Nothoprocta cinerascens , and Nothura maculosa Aves: Journal of Morphology Journal of Experimental Zoology Rictal bristle function in Willow Flycatcher.

Dysplastic koilin causing proventricular obstruction in an Eclectus Parrot Eclectus roratus. Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery Anatomy and physiology of the digestive system in fowl. Pages in Proc. An histological and histochemical analysis of the inner lining and glandular epithelium of the chicken gizzard.

American Journal of Anatomy An ecomorphological study of the raptorial digital tendon locking mechanism. Dietary and developmental regulation of intestinal sugar transport. Digesta retention patterns in geese Anser anser and turkeys Meleagris gallopavo and deduced function of avian caeca.

Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A Histological and global gene expression analysis of the 'lactating' pigeon crop. Vultures of the seas: Evolution of the structure and function of the vertebrate tongue.

Journal of Anatomy Light and scanning electron microscopic study of the tongue in the cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo Phalacrocoracidae, Aves. Functional morphology of the tongue in the nutcracker Nucifraga caryocatactes. A tropical horde of counterfeit predator eyes. Instructed learning in the auditory localization pathway of the Barn Owl.

The morphology of the bill apparatus in the Steller's Sea Eagle. Wild Bird Society of Japan, Tokyo. Use of dung as a tool by burrowing owls. The integration of energy and nitrogen balance in the hummingbird Sephanoides sephaniodes. Does gut function limit hummingbird food intake? Physiological and Biochemical Zoology Pressures produced when penguins pooh—calculations on avian defaecation. Scare tactics in a neotropical warbler: Gliding flight and soaring.

Theoretical Ecology Series, vol. Modelling the flying bird C. Structure, form, and function of flight in engineering and the living world. Phenotypic flexibility and the evolution of organismal design. Trends in Ecology and Evolution The hummingbird tongue is a fluid trap, not a capillary tube.

Between air and water: Use of prey hotspots by an avian predator: Structure and mechanical behavior of a toucan beak. Movement and direction of movement of a simulated prey affect the success rate in Barn Owl Tyto alba attack. Musculoskeletal underpinnings to differences in killing behavior between North American accipiters Falconiformes: Accipitridae and falcons Falconidae. Journal of Morphology, online early. Le Bohec, and Y. Adjustments of gastric pH, motility and temperature during long-term preservation of stomach contents in free-ranging incubating King Penguins.

Journal of Experimental Biology A tough nut to crack. Adaptations to seed cracking in finches. Cost-benefit analysis of mollusc-eating in a shorebird. Optimizing gizzard size in the face of seasonal demands.

How do woodpeckers extract grubs with their tongues? Why do woodpeckers resist head impact injury: Functional morphology of raptor hindlimbs: The turning- and linear-maneuvering performance of birds: Canadian Journal of Zoology Hummingbird jaw bends to aid insect capture.

A mechanical analysis of woodpecker drumming and its application to shock-absorbing systems. I - Introduction to Birds. VII - Circulatory System. Back to Avian Biology. Drawings of the digestive tracts of A a Greylag Goose and B a Wild Turkey and retention times of a solute, 2-mm particles, and 8-mm particles in the goose and turkey digestive systems Figure from Frei et al.

The closed, air-filled spaces reduce overall weight without loss of rigidity. The capillary ratchet mechanism Surface tension transport of prey by feeding shorebirds: The serrated leading-edge feather of an owl Norberg Vortex generators on an airplane wing. Fish-eating species like cormorants below - typically have small, undifferentiated tongue because fish are often swallowed whole. Representative caterpillar false eyes and faces.

In some, like woodpeckers, the 'sticky' saliva aids in capturing prey. In others, like swifts, saliva is used in nest building see photo below. The muscular walls of the esophagus produce wave-like contractions peristalsis that help propel food from the oral cavity to the stomach. Anhinga swallowing a large fish. HCL and pepsinogen are secreted by the deep glands see photomicrograph below. Pepsinogen is converted into pepsin a proteolytic, or protein-digesting, enzyme by the HCl.

The cuticle is secreted by simple tubular glands see photomicrograph below. Grinding action may, particularly in seed-eating birds, be assisted by grit and stones deliberately ingested.

The avian gastrointestinal tract, unlike that of mammals, executes distinct reverse peristaltic movements that are critical to optimal digestive function Duke The gastric reflux allows material in the gizzard to reenter the proventriculus for additional treatment with acid and pepsin. Villi are projections from the intestinal wall that increase the amount of surface area available for absorption. Further increasing the surface area are the numerous microvilli of the cells lining the surface of the villi.

Inside each villus are blood vessels that absorb nutrients for transport throughout the body. Caeca are histologically similar to the small and large intestines and found in a wide variety of birds. In these large ceca, food particles are acted upon by cecal secretions, bacteria, and fungi and nutrients can be absorbed. Lymphoid ceca are not important in digestion but contain lymphocytes white blood cells that produce antibodies Clench At various times and under various conditions, ceca are the site for 1 fermentation and further digestion of food especially for the breakdown of cellulose and absorption of nutrients, 2 production of antibodies, and 3 the use and absorption of water and nitrogenous components Clench The bursa is most prominent in young birds and serves as the area where B-lymphocytes the white blood cells that produce antibodies are generated T-lymphocytes are generated in the Thymus.

Bile emulsifies fats or, in other words, breaks fats down into tiny particles. Emulsification is important because it physically breaks down fats into particles than can then be more easily digested by enzymes lipase produced by intestinal cells and the pancreas. This 'juice' contains a bicarbonate solution that helps neutralize the acids coming into the intestine from the stomach plus a variety of digestive enzymes.

The enzymes help break down fats, proteins, and carbohydrates. The pancreas also produces the hormones insulin and glucagon which regulate blood sugar levels cells that produce these two hormones make up the 'islets of Langerhans', one of which is represented by the light-colored, circular structure in the photomicrograph below.

Hit 'Reload' or 'Refresh' to View Again! Particle retention time hr. Flamingos use a series of projections, or lamellae, to filter tiny food items from debris in the water. Wrens use their thin, probing bill to capture small insects. Curlews use their long bill to probe mudflats for small invertebrates.

Finches do not simply bite the seeds; instead; the lower mandible is moved toward the tip of the bill in a slicing motion. When most of the coat has been cracked or removed, the lower mandible is moved from side to side to remove the rest of the shell, thus releasing the kernel. Some large finches also have raised hard surfaces in the upper palate that function as anvils so large seeds can be held firmly while the lower mandible slices and cracks the sides of the seed.

As tricky as nutcracking sounds, most birds accomplish it rapidly, shelling small seeds in a few seconds and large finches can crack open and devour a large seed or nut in less than twenty seconds. Big mouths get hummingbirds an in-flight meal - Hummingbirds have bendy lower beaks to help them catch insects Yanega and Rubega The flexibility allows long-beaked birds to open their mouths wide enough to hunt on the wing.

Hummingbirds use their long, narrow beaks to probe flowers for nectar, but they also need insects for essential nutrients. It wasn't clear how they could catch them; birds that hunt flying insects usually have short beaks to help them open their mouths wide. Pilcher, Nature Science Update. The force produced by talons may be related to time of activity. Owls hunt when light levels are low so if an attacking owl misses its prey, relocating it may be difficult.

Hawks are diurnal hunters and can use visual cues during and after an attack. If unable to subdue prey initially, they can relocate prey visually and catch it. Given the morphological differences and hunting behaviors of these raptors, how well do those characteristics relate to prey-size selection?

Eastern Screech-Owls prey on insects, small birds, and small mammals. Red-tailed Hawks subsist primarily on rodents and larger mammals such as skunks and rabbits. Red-shouldered Hawks , like Barred Owls, subsist mainly on medium-sized mammals such as squirrels and chipmunks, but also prey on frogs and salamanders.

American Kestrels , like Eastern Screech-Owls, eat mostly insects and small mammals. Bristles occur most prominently around the eyes "eyelashes" , the lores, the nostrils, and around the rictus corners of the mouth. Not all birds have bristles. Rictal bristles are prominent in many insectivorous birds, particularly aerial insectivores like nightjars Order Caprimulgiformes and flycatchers Family Tyrannidae , and may be used as sensory organs to help locate and capture prey, much like mammals use whiskers.

In addition, bristles around the mouth may help protect the eyes from food items a bird is trying to capture Conover and Miller The photo to the right shows the rictal bristles of a Hooded Warbler.

Goose tongue -- The dorsal surface of the tongue of Middendorff's Bean Goose Anser fabalis middendorffii has an anterior region that extends for five-sixths of its length plus a posterior region.

Large conical papillae indicated by arrowhead to the right are located in a row between the anterior and posterior regions. On both sides of the anterior region, lingual papillae are compactly distributed, and small numbers of large conical papillae are found between the lingual papillae. The dorsal surface of the tongue is covered by numerous fine processes, which help hold food on the tongue's surface.

The taste buds of birds may be located in the upper beak epithelium, in the anterior mandible, and the mandibular epithelium posterior to the tongue. Some taste buds are also located ventrolaterally on the anterior tongue.

What Is a Reptile?