The day after that Easter, I was nervous about stepping on the scales. The herring was of unprecedented significance to the economy of much of Northern Europe, and it was one of the most common commodities traded by the Hanseatic League , a powerful north German alliance of trading guilds. I was warned this could happen but I was still a little discouraged. Sicily" in Regional Cuisines of Medieval Europe , pp. Just easy to prepare foods and no gimmick with hour support online. Wine was commonly drunk and was also regarded as the most prestigious and healthy choice. Very well-written blog, I like it a lot.
With this restaurant remake, you can enjoy dining-out flavor while saving money and calories. Not only does our healthy pasta recipe ring in at under calories per serving, but it also requires just 20 minutes of prep. Make it a family dinner recipe by adding more or less chili powder to suit your kids' tastes. Spiced and seasoned veggies—grilled to bring out their natural sweetness—star in our fajita dinner recipe.
You can find the produce year-round, so enjoy the healthy recipe anytime you seek a cheap dinner. A meatless sandwich that's also a cheap and easy meal. Oh yeah, it's also loaded with fiber and protein thanks to garbanzo beans. Whole wheat noodles, no-salt-added canned tomatoes, and shrimp make this delicious meal surprisingly low-cal. Use frozen shrimp instead of fresh to cut the cost of seafood. When it comes to cheap easy dinners, it's hard to beat this protein-packed vegetarian soup recipe.
A hint of Cajun seasoning gives the healthy dinner its bold flavor. Enjoy a light supper with this simple meal that's loaded with protein and veggies—you'll feel satisfied even with smaller portions. Plus, you'll definitely save money dining in rather than out at a Mexican hot spot. A high-fiber, high-flavor soup recipe is the perfect fuel on a chilly night. The addition of salsa verde and a good dose of cumin give this budget meal unique Mexican flavor. Whip up a delicious Mediterranean salad in 20 minutes with a few simple ingredients, including chicken, feta cheese, olives, and tomatoes.
It's the epitome of easy, healthy dinner recipes. Gnocchi, a traditional Italian dumpling, joins sweet corn, arugula, and a plethora of savory seasonings to make one delicious dinner that you'd never guess is budget-friendly. The addition of veggies to the dish adds extra nutrients to this healthy vegetarian recipe. Make expensive meats go further with some help from additional protein-rich ingredients, such as tender French lentils.
Spice up this savory soup with a smoky blend of cumin and cayenne for a flavorful and inexpensive healthy meal. Two pans and 20 minutes later, a serving of this tasty low-sodium dish fulfills 20 percent of your daily iron requirement.
You likely have most of the ingredients on hand, saving you gas money from a grocery trip. Grab prewashed packaged spinach to make meal prep even faster. Even though the package says it's washed, be sure to rinse the spinach in a colander before using. Turn a classic pork chop into a tangy, tropical meal. Orange marmalade creates a mouthwatering and easy! Grilled pineapple slices on the side lend their bold sweetness to this new grill-season favorite.
Try our healthy vegetarian version of your favorite stroganoff for a new low-cal take on the classic. Our light cream sauce goes well with flat, long pastas, so try swapping fettuccine or tagliatelle for the pappardelle. Just choose whatever's on sale to stick with the cheap-meal theme. Just as rich—and twice as nutritious—as traditional lasagna, this veggie-packed version has only calories per serving. We swapped veggies for red meat but kept all the cheeses you love for a healthy meal idea.
Make healthy veggies delicious with the addition of butter, herbs, and cheese. There's also lean chicken and heart-healthy walnuts for a hearty and healthy budget meal.
Wheat was common all over Europe and was considered to be the most nutritious of all grains, but was more prestigious and thus more expensive. The finely sifted white flour that modern Europeans are most familiar with was reserved for the bread of the upper classes. As one descended the social ladder, bread became coarser, darker, and its bran content increased. In times of grain shortages or outright famine, grains could be supplemented with cheaper and less desirable substitutes like chestnuts , dried legumes , acorns , ferns , and a wide variety of more or less nutritious vegetable matter.
One of the most common constituents of a medieval meal, either as part of a banquet or as a small snack, were sops , pieces of bread with which a liquid like wine , soup , broth , or sauce could be soaked up and eaten. Another common sight at the medieval dinner table was the frumenty , a thick wheat porridge often boiled in a meat broth and seasoned with spices.
Porridges were also made of every type of grain and could be served as desserts or dishes for the sick, if boiled in milk or almond milk and sweetened with sugar. Pies filled with meats, eggs, vegetables, or fruit were common throughout Europe, as were turnovers , fritters , doughnuts , and many similar pastries.
By the Late Middle Ages biscuits cookies in the U. Grain, either as bread crumbs or flour, was also the most common thickener of soups and stews, alone or in combination with almond milk. The importance of bread as a daily staple meant that bakers played a crucial role in any medieval community. Bread consumption was high in most of Western Europe by the 14th century. Estimates of bread consumption from different regions are fairly similar: Among the first town guilds to be organized were the bakers', and laws and regulations were passed to keep bread prices stable.
The English Assize of Bread and Ale of listed extensive tables where the size, weight, and price of a loaf of bread were regulated in relation to grain prices. The baker's profit margin stipulated in the tables was later increased through successful lobbying from the London Baker's Company by adding the cost of everything from firewood and salt to the baker's wife, house, and dog. Since bread was such a central part of the medieval diet, swindling by those who were trusted with supplying the precious commodity to the community was considered a serious offense.
Bakers who were caught tampering with weights or adulterating dough with less expensive ingredients could receive severe penalties. This gave rise to the " baker's dozen ": While grains were the primary constituent of most meals, vegetables such as cabbage , chard , onions , garlic and carrots were common foodstuffs.
Many of these were eaten daily by peasants and workers and were less prestigious than meat. The cookbooks, which appeared in the late Middle Ages and were intended mostly for those who could afford such luxuries, contained only a small number of recipes using vegetables as the main ingredient.
The lack of recipes for many basic vegetable dishes, such as potages , has been interpreted not to mean that they were absent from the meals of the nobility, but rather that they were considered so basic that they did not require recording.
Various legumes , like chickpeas , fava beans and field peas were also common and important sources of protein , especially among the lower classes. With the exception of peas, legumes were often viewed with some suspicion by the dietitians advising the upper class, partly because of their tendency to cause flatulence but also because they were associated with the coarse food of peasants.
The importance of vegetables to the common people is illustrated by accounts from 16th-century Germany stating that many peasants ate sauerkraut from three to four times a day. Fruit was popular and could be served fresh, dried, or preserved, and was a common ingredient in many cooked dishes. The fruits of choice in the south were lemons , citrons , bitter oranges the sweet type was not introduced until several hundred years later , pomegranates , quinces , and, of course, grapes.
Farther north, apples , pears , plums , and strawberries were more common. Figs and dates were eaten all over Europe, but remained rather expensive imports in the north. Common and often basic ingredients in many modern European cuisines like potatoes , kidney beans , cacao , vanilla , tomatoes , chili peppers and maize were not available to Europeans until after , after European contact with the Americas, and even then it often took considerable time, sometimes several centuries, for the new foodstuffs to be accepted by society at large.
Milk was an important source of animal protein for those who could not afford meat. It would mostly come from cows, but milk from goats and sheep was also common. Plain fresh milk was not consumed by adults except the poor or sick, and was usually reserved for the very young or elderly. Poor adults would sometimes drink buttermilk or whey or milk that was soured or watered down.
On occasion it was used in upper-class kitchens in stews, but it was difficult to keep fresh in bulk and almond milk was generally used in its stead. Cheese was far more important as a foodstuff, especially for common people, and it has been suggested that it was, during many periods, the chief supplier of animal protein among the lower classes.
There were also whey cheeses , like ricotta , made from by-products of the production of harder cheeses. Cheese was used in cooking for pies and soups, the latter being common fare in German-speaking areas.
Butter , another important dairy product, was in popular use in the regions of Northern Europe that specialized in cattle production in the latter half of the Middle Ages, the Low Countries and Southern Scandinavia. While most other regions used oil or lard as cooking fats, butter was the dominant cooking medium in these areas. Its production also allowed for a lucrative butter export from the 12th century onward.
While all forms of wild game were popular among those who could obtain it, most meat came from domestic animals. Domestic working animals that were no longer able to work were slaughtered but not particularly appetizing and therefore were less valued as meat. Beef was not as common as today because raising cattle was labor-intensive, requiring pastures and feed, and oxen and cows were much more valuable as draught animals and for producing milk.
Mutton and lamb were fairly common, especially in areas with a sizeable wool industry, as was veal. Domestic pigs often ran freely even in towns and could be fed on just about any organic waste, and suckling pig was a sought-after delicacy. Just about every part of the pig was eaten, including ears, snout, tail, tongue , and womb.
Intestines, bladder and stomach could be used as casings for sausage or even illusion food such as giant eggs. Among the meats that today are rare or even considered inappropriate for human consumption are the hedgehog and porcupine , occasionally mentioned in late medieval recipe collections. In England, they were deliberately introduced by the 13th century and their colonies were carefully protected.
They were of particular value for monasteries, because newborn rabbits were allegedly declared fish or, at least, not-meat by the church and therefore they could be eaten during Lent. A wide range of birds were eaten, including swans , peafowl , quail , partridge , storks , cranes , larks , linnets and other songbirds that could be trapped in nets, and just about any other wild bird that could be hunted. Swans and peafowl were domesticated to some extent, but were only eaten by the social elite, and more praised for their fine appearance as stunning entertainment dishes, entremets , than for their meat.
As today, geese and ducks had been domesticated but were not as popular as the chicken , the fowl equivalent of the pig. But at the Fourth Council of the Lateran , Pope Innocent III explicitly prohibited the eating of barnacle geese during Lent, arguing that they lived and fed like ducks and so were of the same nature as other birds. Meats were more expensive than plant foods.
Though rich in protein , the calorie -to-weight ratio of meat was less than that of plant food. Meat could be up to four times as expensive as bread. Fish was up to 16 times as costly, and was expensive even for coastal populations. This meant that fasts could mean an especially meager diet for those who could not afford alternatives to meat and animal products like milk and eggs.
It was only after the Black Death had eradicated up to half of the European population that meat became more common even for poorer people.
The drastic reduction in many populated areas resulted in a labor shortage, meaning that wages dramatically increased.
It also left vast areas of farmland untended, making them available for pasture and putting more meat on the market. Although less prestigious than other animal meats, and often seen as merely an alternative to meat on fast days, seafood was the mainstay of many coastal populations. Also included were the beaver , due to its scaly tail and considerable time spent in water, and barnacle geese , due to the belief that they developed underwater in the form of barnacles.
The Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II examined barnacles and noted no evidence of any bird-like embryo in them, and the secretary of Leo of Rozmital wrote a very skeptical account of his reaction to being served barnacle goose at a fish-day dinner in Especially important was the fishing and trade in herring and cod in the Atlantic and the Baltic Sea. The herring was of unprecedented significance to the economy of much of Northern Europe, and it was one of the most common commodities traded by the Hanseatic League , a powerful north German alliance of trading guilds.
Kippers made from herring caught in the North Sea could be found in markets as far away as Constantinople. Stockfish , cod that was split down the middle, fixed to a pole and dried, was very common, though preparation could be time-consuming, and meant beating the dried fish with a mallet before soaking it in water.
A wide range of mollusks including oysters , mussels and scallops were eaten by coastal and river-dwelling populations, and freshwater crayfish were seen as a desirable alternative to meat during fish days.
Compared to meat, fish was much more expensive for inland populations, especially in Central Europe, and therefore not an option for most. Freshwater fish such as pike , carp , bream , perch , lamprey and trout were common. While in modern times, water is often drunk with a meal, in the Middle Ages, however, concerns over purity, medical recommendations and its low prestige value made it less favored, and alcoholic beverages were preferred. They were seen as more nutritious and beneficial to digestion than water, with the invaluable bonus of being less prone to putrefaction due to the alcohol content.
Wine was consumed on a daily basis in most of France and all over the Western Mediterranean wherever grapes were cultivated.
Further north it remained the preferred drink of the bourgeoisie and the nobility who could afford it, and far less common among peasants and workers. The drink of commoners in the northern parts of the continent was primarily beer or ale. Juices , as well as wines, of a multitude of fruits and berries had been known at least since Roman antiquity and were still consumed in the Middle Ages: Medieval drinks that have survived to this day include prunellé from wild plums modern-day slivovitz , mulberry gin and blackberry wine.
Many variants of mead have been found in medieval recipes, with or without alcoholic content. However, the honey -based drink became less common as a table beverage towards the end of the period and was eventually relegated to medicinal use.
This is partially true since mead bore great symbolic value at important occasions. When agreeing on treaties and other important affairs of state, mead was often presented as a ceremonial gift. It was also common at weddings and baptismal parties, though in limited quantity due to its high price. In medieval Poland , mead had a status equivalent to that of imported luxuries, such as spices and wines. Plain milk was not consumed by adults except the poor or sick, being reserved for the very young or elderly, and then usually as buttermilk or whey.
Fresh milk was overall less common than other dairy products because of the lack of technology to keep it from spoiling. However, neither of these non-alcoholic social drinks were consumed in Europe before the late 16th and early 17th century. Wine was commonly drunk and was also regarded as the most prestigious and healthy choice. According to Galen 's dietetics it was considered hot and dry but these qualities were moderated when wine was watered down.
Unlike water or beer, which were considered cold and moist, consumption of wine in moderation especially red wine was, among other things, believed to aid digestion, generate good blood and brighten the mood.
The first pressing was made into the finest and most expensive wines which were reserved for the upper classes. The second and third pressings were subsequently of lower quality and alcohol content. Common folk usually had to settle for a cheap white or rosé from a second or even third pressing, meaning that it could be consumed in quite generous amounts without leading to heavy intoxication. For the poorest or the most pious , watered-down vinegar similar to Ancient Roman posca would often be the only available choice.
The aging of high quality red wine required specialized knowledge as well as expensive storage and equipment, and resulted in an even more expensive end product. Judging from the advice given in many medieval documents on how to salvage wine that bore signs of going bad, preservation must have been a widespread problem. Even if vinegar was a common ingredient, there was only so much of it that could be used. In the 14th century cookbook Le Viandier there are several methods for salvaging spoiling wine; making sure that the wine barrels are always topped up or adding a mixture of dried and boiled white grape seeds with the ash of dried and burnt lees of white wine were both effective bactericides , even if the chemical processes were not understood at the time.
Wine was believed to act as a kind of vaporizer and conduit of other foodstuffs to every part of the body, and the addition of fragrant and exotic spices would make it even more wholesome. Spiced wines were usually made by mixing an ordinary red wine with an assortment of spices such as ginger , cardamom , pepper , grains of paradise , nutmeg , cloves and sugar.
These would be contained in small bags which were either steeped in wine or had liquid poured over them to produce hypocras and claré. By the 14th century, bagged spice mixes could be bought ready-made from spice merchants. While wine was the most common table beverage in much of Europe, this was not the case in the northern regions where grapes were not cultivated. Those who could afford it drank imported wine, but even for nobility in these areas it was common to drink beer or ale , particularly towards the end of the Middle Ages.
In England , the Low Countries , northern Germany , Poland and Scandinavia , beer was consumed on a daily basis by people of all social classes and age groups. For most medieval Europeans, it was a humble brew compared with common southern drinks and cooking ingredients, such as wine, lemons and olive oil. Even comparatively exotic products like camel 's milk and gazelle meat generally received more positive attention in medical texts.
Beer was just an acceptable alternative and was assigned various negative qualities. In , the Sienese physician Aldobrandino described beer in the following way:. But from whichever it is made, whether from oats, barley or wheat, it harms the head and the stomach, it causes bad breath and ruins the teeth , it fills the stomach with bad fumes, and as a result anyone who drinks it along with wine becomes drunk quickly; but it does have the property of facilitating urination and makes one's flesh white and smooth.
The intoxicating effect of beer was believed to last longer than that of wine, but it was also admitted that it did not create the "false thirst" associated with wine. Though less prominent than in the north, beer was consumed in northern France and the Italian mainland.
Perhaps as a consequence of the Norman conquest and the travelling of nobles between France and England, one French variant described in the 14th century cookbook Le Menagier de Paris was called godale most likely a direct borrowing from the English "good ale" and was made from barley and spelt , but without hops. In England there were also the variants poset ale , made from hot milk and cold ale, and brakot or braggot , a spiced ale prepared much like hypocras.
That hops could be used for flavoring beer had been known at least since Carolingian times, but was adopted gradually due to difficulties in establishing the appropriate proportions. Before the widespread use of hops, gruit , a mix of various herbs , had been used. Gruit had the same preserving properties as hops, though less reliable depending on what herbs were in it, and the end result was much more variable. Another flavoring method was to increase the alcohol content, but this was more expensive and lent the beer the undesired characteristic of being a quick and heavy intoxicant.
Hops may have been widely used in England in the tenth century; they were grown in Austria by and in Finland by , and possibly much earlier. Before hops became popular as an ingredient, it was difficult to preserve this beverage for any time, and so, it was mostly consumed fresh.
Quantities of beer consumed by medieval residents of Europe, as recorded in contemporary literature, far exceed intakes in the modern world. For example, sailors in 16th century England and Denmark received a ration of 1 imperial gallon 4.
Polish peasants consumed up to 3 litres 0. In the Early Middle Ages beer was primarily brewed in monasteries , and on a smaller scale in individual households. By the High Middle Ages breweries in the fledgling medieval towns of northern Germany began to take over production.
Though most of the breweries were small family businesses that employed at most eight to ten people, regular production allowed for investment in better equipment and increased experimentation with new recipes and brewing techniques. These operations later spread to the Netherlands in the 14th century, then to Flanders and Brabant , and reached England by the 15th century. Hopped beer became very popular in the last decades of the Late Middle Ages. When perfected as an ingredient, hops could make beer keep for six months or more, and facilitated extensive exports.
In turn, ale or beer was classified into "strong" and "small", the latter less intoxicating, regarded as a drink of temperate people, and suitable for consumption by children. As late as , John Locke stated that the only drink he considered suitable for children of all ages was small beer, while criticizing the apparently common practice among Englishmen of the time to give their children wine and strong alcohol.
By modern standards, the brewing process was relatively inefficient, but capable of producing quite strong alcohol when that was desired. One recent attempt to recreate medieval English "strong ale" using recipes and techniques of the era albeit with the use of modern yeast strains yielded a strongly alcoholic brew with original gravity of 1.
The ancient Greeks and Romans knew of the technique of distillation , but it was not practiced on a major scale in Europe until some time around the 12th century, when Arabic innovations in the field combined with water-cooled glass alembics were introduced.
Distillation was believed by medieval scholars to produce the essence of the liquid being purified, and the term aqua vitae "water of life" was used as a generic term for all kinds of distillates.
Alcoholic distillates were also occasionally used to create dazzling, fire-breathing entremets a type of entertainment dish after a course by soaking a piece of cotton in spirits. It would then be placed in the mouth of the stuffed, cooked and occasionally redressed animals, and lit just before presenting the creation. Aqua vitae in its alcoholic forms was highly praised by medieval physicians.
In Arnaldus of Villanova wrote that "[i]t prolongs good health, dissipates superfluous humours, reanimates the heart and maintains youth. By the 13th century, Hausbrand literally "home-burnt" from gebrannter wein, brandwein ; "burnt [distilled] wine" was commonplace, marking the origin of brandy. Towards the end of the Late Middle Ages, the consumption of spirits became so ingrained even among the general population that restrictions on sales and production began to appear in the late 15th century.
I added healthy snacks between my meals such as fresh avocado, yogurt and mixed nuts. The days got easier. By the third day of sticking to the plan which was a big accomplishment for me , I was already feeling more energy and less bloating.
This motivated me to do another week. Weeks went on and I continued following the Nutrisystem diet. So, how long does Nutrisystem take to work? It works within the first few days. Each day I made sure to drink at least 64 oz of water and light exercise, which usually included twenty minutes of hula hooping.
With the help of my Fitbit, I made a goal to get in at least steps in per day. I used the MyfitnessPal app to keep a log of my daily food and calorie intake. Here I was able to make other friends from a Nutrisystem support group who were reaching for the same goals. The weekends were challenging as we chose to go out to our favorite restaurants. I ordered off the Lite menu or A La Carte.
The hardest part was avoiding the chips and dip at the Mexican restaurant. This usually resulted in me actually sitting on my hands. Yes the struggle was real here. The second week was easier. I finally set a goal to lose 30 lbs.
I really wanted to get into a new Easter outfit. I was still buying Nutrisystem by the week from Walmart. Does Nutrisystem from Walmart or Costco work? It sure did for me. I looked forward to my next meal. I got hungry between meals sometimes. This is when I would snack on foods such as almonds, kale chips or nonfat yogurts. I purchased some Nutrisystem shakes to use between meals also.
They are delicious and will knock out the hungry feelings or cravings. I only lost 2 lbs the second week but it was still a loss. By the third week, I noticed my health was improving.
I no longer suffered from heartburn and acid reflux. I felt good and best of all I was losing weight. By now, I knew this was the diet for me and was ready to keep going. I decided to give in and purchase through Nutrisystem. While I was online ordering I chatted with a representative about my plan options and payment concerns.
She was very informative as she helped me make my first purchase. Once I became a member, there were tools on the website that helped me achieve my goal. I entered my height and weight, how many pounds I wanted to lose and it set a calorie goal for me. I needed calories a day to achieve my desired weight loss goal of 30 lbs. I was able to choose days worth of food from the menu. A couple days later a large box showed up at my door.
I stocked my pantry and the journey continued. After one month the whole diet thing was easier as I was no longer craving foods like before. The cravings were not completely gone but walking away from a piece of cake or pizza was no longer a challenge. I had my own Nutrisystem goodies such as chocolate, pizza, potatoes, muffins and more.
I stepped on the scales and smiled as I had lost a total of 11 lbs in one month. This earned me a Nutribear. Nutrisystem will award a new bear for every 10 lbs. New eating habits were not my only struggle.
To accomplish success, this required me to give up food and wine outings with friends. I turned down invites as this would lead to binge eating and they would not understand. One day while exercising and listening to music, I began to get emotional and felt alone.
I felt like everyone had abandoned me. I was even snubbed by some of my overweight friends and family. Some of the people I work with picked on me. I would just toss it in the trash and carry on with my day. They can be judgmental as well. Calling someone too skinny can be just as painful as calling someone fat.
However, my husband and daughter were my biggest fans on this journey. My husband continued complementing me on how good I look and how proud he is of me. He never complained that we did not go out to eat as much as we used to or that I no longer cooked meals. He pushed me to exercise and eat healthy. It was definitely an emotional rollercoaster at times. At the same time, reading other people's testimonies and reviews of the Nutrisystem diet was encouraging and inspiring, too.
My size twelves were getting too big. Though I was actually enjoying wearing them loose, I knew at this rate I would need some new clothes. Grabbing a few pairs of jeans in a size 10, and one in a size 8 just for fun, I dashed into the dressing room. They were a little snug but I was still a comfortable ten. However, I did buy a pair of yoga pants to walk in. When I got home, I put on those jeans I had in my closet and took my first ever mirror selfie. I was half way to my goal and I now had the confidence that I would reach it.
By week ten, I was still enjoying all the food and health benefits of Nutrisystem. I still had 10lbs to lose to reach my goal but I started getting discouraged. My weight loss had slowed down. I even gained a pound. Due to financial struggles, I was afraid I would have to cut back on my Nutrisystem food orders.
I was averaging a 1 to 2 lbs weight loss and that was a healthy normal. I decided to measure instead of weigh. Then there was still the money issue. There were other saving options out there as well, like a Nutrisystem promo code for existing customers.
By the 3rd month, I had lost even more weight and people were starting to notice. I was getting a lot of compliments. I bagged up the clothes and donated them to the local Good Will. The weight loss is real to me now. Let me give you some brief Nutrisystem food reviews. Every month I would log onto my Nutrisystem account. From the menu options, I would pick 28 foods of my choice for each of the four meals which included breakfast, lunch, dinner and dessert.
The choices were easy as I loved almost everything they offer. The plan I chose, which is the Core plan, only includes the shelf foods instead of the frozen varieties. I got to have delicious foods such as doughnuts, pancakes, chocolate muffins, pizza, hamburger, chicken and even cake and brownies.
With all the choices, it never gets boring. The meats in the shelf items are conveniently packed in a vacuum sealed wrap but were tender and taste like they are right out of the deli. With so many varieties, I ate something different each day of the week. It was just perfectly pre-portioned meals to keep me on a healthy track. The food contains no trans fats, and it's low in sodium.
And the carbs it contains are of low glycemic index. This is why Nutrisystem food prevents fatique, reduces your appetite, keeps you fuller and energized for longer.
It's safe for diabetics, too.