Several other states have enacted some form of regulation. Tell students to write those questions on a piece of paper and to add to that paper five more questions they could ask someone they don't know. We will also cover which plants will work best for your home, as well as soil basics, propagation methods, and healthy re-potting techniques. Avery Marcott, Olbrich Botanical Gardens. Consider how this affects Jonas's view of the world.
And everyone knows that bowling has many Health Benefits. In addition to securing your […]. Top 10 Health Benefits of Drinking Coffee.
Top 10 Healthy Birthday Activities. Top 10 Tips To Improve Posture. Top 10 Unhealthy Fashion Trends. Burning Calories at Home! In general, food bottles have not inspired as much interest from collectors the source of a large majority of bottle reference books as other categories.
Thus, foods have received a relatively limited amount of research in comparison to the relative commonness of the type. Historically, many processes were used to preserve food for the long term including drying, smoking, pickling like for the cucumber pickles that likely were contained in the ornate bottle to the left , sugaring, salting, alcohol i. The milestone event in the containerized preservation of food was the development of the hermetically sealed container by the French inventor M.
Nicolas Appert who is generally recognized as the father of the canned food industry. His work was prompted by the offering of a reward in by the French government 12, francs for a viable food preservation process. This was during the Napoleonic War era and was done, not surprisingly, for military reasons. Appert's experiments with the application of high heat along with the exclusion of air from a sealed container led directly to the development of a canning process in and Appert's award of the prize money that allowed for the relatively long term storage of animal and vegetable products in sealed containers of various materials Munsey ; Roller ; Bender ; Jones Appert's process involved the killing of the bacteria by heating followed by exclusion from further contamination in a sealed container, although the actual scientific reasons as to why the process worked were unknown at the time.
Glass in particular, provided a combination of unique qualities not available with early day ceramic or metal containers, i.
Bender  contains an excellent though succinct overview of early 19th century food preservation efforts, although the book is primarily devoted to the major closures used by the glass packing industry during the first half of the 20th century. Although the variety of different shaped glass containers used for food products was quite extensive, many classes of food bottles and jars do share a couple traits in common. This is evident on the midth century "cathedral" pickle bottle pictured to the above left.
Some liquid food containers like milk bottles example to the right also had relatively wide mouths for overall ease of use and cleaning for re-use though other more liquid food products oil, sauces worked quite well with narrow mouth bottles.
A "Lightning" bail type canning jar closure is shown on the canning jar pictured below. As discussed frequently on this website, the re-use of "disposable" bottles of almost all types was common up until the early 20th century; food bottles were likely no different and were frequently re-used. Canning jars likely warrant a separate typology page as has been suggested by some reviewers but have been addressed here for simplicity since they are a category within the broad group of "food" bottles though often treated separately by many authors.
In addition, these typing pages can only scratch the surface of the diversity of any group - including canning jars. Contrary to most other food bottle categories, canning jars have indeed received significant attention from researchers. Other categories - like "Canning Jars" - are largely based on dominant closure types. Conversely, Munsey also lumped into the "Food Bottles" chapter types which are separated here into subject categories, i.
Some other types - like milk bottles - naturally fall out into their own category. The organization used here simply made more sense given the author's experience and the specific goals of this website.
This book is still available new and used at sources like Amazon. Both of these books have excellent, relatively comprehensive, historical information although both are long out of print and difficult expensive to obtain, even on the internet. Catalog to access the page that links to all the scans of this very useful catalog. Each of the pictured bottles has a relatively short description and explanation including an estimated date or date range for that type bottle and links to other view pictures of the bottle.
Additional links to images of similar bottles are also frequently included. The array of references used to support the conclusions and estimates found here - including the listed dating ranges - are noted.
Additional information and estimates are based on the empirical observations of the author over 50 years of experience; a fact often but not always noted.
Various terminology is used in the descriptions that may be unfamiliar if you have not studied other pages on this site. If a term is unfamiliar, first check the Bottle Glossary page for an explanation or definition.
As an alternative, one can do a search of this website. Sauces and condiments for foods were almost a necessity prior to the marvelous food preservation advances of the 20th century. The foods available during the 19th century and before were often of dubious quality and taste - or at least bland - necessitating the use of a wide array of sauces to either enhance the flavor or cover up off-flavors Rinker Given this fact, sauces and condiment bottles are very commonly associated with historic sites dating from the entire time span covered by this website, i.
Sauces and condiments are lumped together in this section due to the similarity of the products, i. Sauces are usually considered condiments, though not all condiments are sauces - if one defines sauce as being more liquid than not. However, these two categories of bottles do have some functional differences from each other as to the general shapes.
Although not covered as a specific category, the bottle pictured to the above left would be considered typical of the shape of bottles used for sauce during the earliest part of the era covered by this website These somewhat uniquely shaped bottles were probably manufactured by various processes - free-blown, dip molded, or two or three-piece molded like the pictured example , would have pontil scarred or smooth bases like this example; click sauce base to view an image of this bottles slightly pushed-up base , and date from the s to s era.
The pictured bottle was likely used for "oyster ketchup" as it was excavated in San Francisco, CA. However, bottles of this general shape could - and probably were - used for a variety of liquid substances e.
The reader should be aware that there were likely thousands of uniquely different sauce bottles made during the era covered by this website if one includes the plethora of subtle variations on the major thematic styles presented here. One of the earliest of the distinct U. These designs also see the gothic pickle bottle section later on this page originated during the midth century "Gothic Revival" period in American and Europe which also had its effects on the architecture of the period Deiss pers.
Gothic sauce bottles were made in both square and hexagonal cross-section shapes and are often quite ornate in appearance - an early and apparently successful attempt to use packaging to attract the eye of potential purchasers by stylistically emulating the already popular Victorian gothic design elements of the 19th century. Some less ornate designs simply have the long lower body indented and peaked panels without the upper smaller panels, or just one upper panel instead of two.
These would all be considered as gothic styles. The example to the left is typical of the style with three separate panels on each side with the two upper panels having additional decorative features inside the panel. The cathedral designation almost certainly modern collector jargon.
Both the four square and six sided hexagonal designs seem to have appeared about the same time s and both cross-section shapes continued in use to some degree as late as the early 20th century although both configurations of the style were most popular from about through the s Deiss ; empirical observations. The image to the above right shows a base view of both conformations. The following discussions cover the two major classes of gothic sauces: It should be noted that five sided gothic sauce bottles have been reported Spude et al.
The gothic peppersauce bottle pictured in the upper left corner of this section is a square gothic sauce dating from the s to mids time period based on diagnostic features including an improved or iron pontil mark on the base and a key mold base conformation. This example is typical of the design popular during the through period. Click on base view to see an image of this bottles base showing the very distinct iron or improved pontil scar.
The picture to the right is of a bit later version of a square gothic pepper sauce ca. The author has noted with both the square and hexagonal shapes a distinct tendency towards narrower bodied bottles as the 19th century progressed.
In addition, the square styles appear to have largely fallen out of favor by the early s discussed below though were being made by at least one bottle maker until Hagerty Brothers Click on the following links for more images of the gothic pepper sauce bottle to the right: This bottle is also the square example in the base image above.
This particular bottle lacks a pontil scar on the base which has the embossed letter "S" as shown in the base view image above right though has a crudely applied double ring finish, key base mold blown , and no evidence of mold air venting.
Given that the lifespan of a heavily used mold for a popular generic style bottle type like this was likely just a few years, one can be confident that this bottle dates from the mids. Click close-up of the upper embossing pattern, neck and finish to see these features. Variations of the gothic style were in use for an extensive period and appear to not have begun to disappear until the advent of bottle making machines during the early 20th century and even lingered into the early s on bottles which may have been machine-made Obear-Nester Co.
These later mouth-blown hexagonal examples have tooled finishes, exhibit mold air venting marks, and were made in cup-bottom molds Spude et al. Other images of gothic style sauce bottles are available by clicking on the following links. This helps show a bit of the diversity of shape found in these bottles: E arly 20th century gothic peppersauce - This is an typical example of the later mouth-blown hexagonal pepper sauce bottle which was likely made sometime between the s and s.
This shows the slight but distinctly narrower profile typical of the later hexagonal gothic pepper sauces noted earlier and is virtually identical to the Obear-Nester Glass Co.
Click on the following links to view more images of this bottle: Gothic style sauce bottles are most commonly associated with historic sites that date from the period spanning the late s to early s through the s; the gothic sauce bottles pictured here are typical of that era Deiss The following is a summary of some key date ranges for two classes of gothic sauce bottles: Square and hexagonal examples first appeared in the late s to possibly early s Deiss Pontil scarred examples glass-tipped, blowpipe, and iron pontil scars date from the above noted origination time to the American Civil War period.
After that point approximately these bottles are virtually all "smooth base", i. Square examples appear to have largely disappeared by the early to mids with some made as late as Hagerty Brothers All square examples studied by the author have had applied finishes indicating that this style was unusual by the mid to late s.
Bottle makers catalogs after the late s only list hexagonal designs, if they list any gothic design sauces.
Hexagonal examples were mouth-blown produced at least as late as and possibly even into the s Cumberland Glass Co. Those made prior to the late s have applied finishes; those after that time s and later typically have tooled finishes. Early 20th century examples are not uncommon in colorless or light amethyst glass Rinker ; empirical observations. Early 20th century examples made by the Illinois Glass Co.
The latest hexagonal gothic sauce bottles were likely machine-made, though examples have not been observed by the author. The example listed in the Obear-Nester Glass Co.
The illustration shows the typical type of relatively narrow hexagonal gothic pepper sauce bottles made by various glass makers from the s through the first couple decades of the 20th century. In fact, that illustrated design conformation - having embossed decorative features within the tall arched lower panel - is typical of the gothic sauce bottles made during the s through s to early s era, including the mouth-blown items noted in the previous point.
Most gothic sauce bottles produced before the s were conformed like the bottles pictured earlier in this section Illinois Glass Co. This illustration also shows [bottle on left] Obear-Nester's horizontally ribbed "hexagon pepper sauce" bottle offering; the subject of the next section below.
As noted earlier, there was a trend in gothic sauce bottles for the diameter of the bottles - both square and hexagonal - to narrow a bit over time from the s to about However, this is a feature that is only easily apparent after examining a large number of these type bottles and should simply be used as one of several physical features to consider when estimating the manufacturing date of this type.
Generally speaking, the dating of these type bottles based on manufacturing related diagnostic features follows quite well the guidelines presented throughout this website and summarized on the Bottle Dating page; see that page for more information. Ribbed styles This moderately variable category of sauce bottles is unified by the fact that the bottles have some type of molded decorative body features dominated by variously detailed and oriented ridges or ribbing.
These bottles primarily contained various types of pepper sauce aka peppersauce - one word though some were used for foods like ketchup, vinegar and likely other semi-liquid food products Switzer ; Zumwalt All do share a general similarity of overall conformation of being a "sauce-like" tall and narrow, usually a capacity of 12 oz. One should be aware that there is a lot form and decorative variety within this category not specifically covered by the pictured bottles, though those discussed in the following are commonly encountered designs Zumwalt It should also be noted that ketchup bottles often have vertical body ribbing and grade into this category somewhat, though ketchup bottles tend to have a different overall conformation and usually a different type finish, i.
Ketchup bottles are covered in the next section. Tall, relatively narrow sauce bottles with varying types of vertical ribs, ridging or fluting were a very common conformation from as early as the late s or early s well into the early 20th century Switzer ; Zumwalt Mouth-blown vertically ribbed sauce bottles were typically made of aqua glass, though colorless or light amethyst manganese dioxide decolorized glass examples are fairly common and deeper greens and blues occasionally seen.
Machine-made vertically ribbed sauce bottles - though not specifically discussed here - exist and lean strongly towards being dominated by colorless glass like the majority of 20th century, machine-made food bottles and jars Zumwalt The common, vertically ribbed sauce bottle pictured above is of late 19th century origin and is hexagonal in cross-section.
Nothing is really known about this company except that it was located at Washington St. However, this vertically ribbed style and similar variations were certainly used by many different sauce producing companies and made by many different glass companies during the era from the s to s. This particular example has a tooled double ring finish and was blown in a post-bottom mold though has no obvious air venting marks indicating a likely manufacturing date range.
Click on the following links for more images of this bottle: Photo courtesy of David Whitten. The pictured example also has three horizontal rings on the neck which was a common stylistic feature for this class of vertically ribbed sauce bottles. This example has an applied double ring finish, lacks evidence of mold air venting, and is not pontil scarred on the base which is embossed with S.
Photo courtesy of Glass Works Auctions. This particular bottle has a crudely applied one-part extract type finish more or less , blowpipe pontil scarred base, and was hinge mold blown with certainly no evidence of mold air venting the author has never observed a pontil scarred, mold air vented bottle. These attributes are consistent with a manufacture during the s or early s.
One of these bottles with an original label noted that it contained "tomato catsup" and similar bottles from this company have been recorded in cobalt blue and deep green, though the vast majority are aqua Zumwalt ; empirical observations.
Pickle bottles from this company were also excavated from both the steamships Arabia and Bertrand which sank in the Missouri River in and , respectively Switzer ; Hawley This gives some indication of how commonly used these bottles were during the midth century.
Although the style was most popular during the era noted s to s they were made by at least one glassmaker in the early s as they are listed in the Robert J. Alther glassware catalog as a "fluted pepper sauce" Alther ; empirical observations. Click Alther catalog page 55 to view the page from the catalog that shows their version of the bottle which appear identical to the examples pictured above, including the vertically fluted body ribs and three tightly grouped horizontal rings on the neck Alther Although the author has not personally seen an example with diagnostic features indicating an early 20th century production, it is possible that the vertically ribbed pepper sauce in the "other images" grouping below may be from as late as the very early s.
This photo and a description of the bottle was provided by a user of this site in early Distinct horizontal ribbing was also a very common conformation for a wide variety of sauce bottles from at least as early as the s until well into the 20th century. Many types of sauce bottles fit into this category with only a few covered here; users should be aware that this category has a wide range of types and variations.
The binding feature here is that these bottles have distinct horizontal body ribbing, usually held no more than 12 to 16 oz. The so-called "beehive" sauce bottles pictured to the left and right were used by the E. New York and are embossed on the base as such. Photo to the right courtesy of Glass Works Auctions. Click Durkee sauce base to see an image of the base. The pictured bottles range from 7" to 7. These are not narrow bodied like the other sauces pictured here though there are other obvious similarities.
As emphasized throughout this website, this is yet another example of the fact that in all things connected with bottle identification, there are virtually always exceptions.
A few other companies utilized bottles of this style from at least the s to well into the s and possibly later, although the vast majority of the beehive sauce bottles encountered are from Durkee Zumwalt ; empirical observations. The horizontally ribbed sauce pictured to the left is an early machine-made item that also had virtually identical mouth-blown counterparts.
These were called "ring pepper sauce" or "oval ring pepper sauce" bottles by the likely dozens of different early 20th century glass makers that produced the style. This oval in cross-section style was popular from the late s through at least the late s and early s Illinois Glass , , , ; Cumberland Glass ; Fairmount Glass ca.
Very similar looking ringed peppersauce bottles were also made during the same era s through s that were round "round ring pepper sauce" and square "square ring pepper sauce" in cross-section instead of oval Illinois Glass ; Cumberland Glass ; Obear-Nester Glass This style falls halfway between the two styles noted above in that the ribs spiral down or up depending on perspective the bottle with the overall "look" visually more similar to the horizontally ribbed styles than the vertically ribbed.
This style is typified by the three differently colored sauce bottles pictured to the right. The pictured bottles to the right 7. FOR on the base. These bottles have tooled double ring finishes with the upper portion distinctly larger than the lower portion and were blown in a cup-base mold which likely had air venting although evidence of air venting is lost in the heavily decorated body styling - all attributes indicating manufacture between the s and early s.
Other images of ribbed style sauce bottles are available by clicking on the following links. This helps show a bit of the diversity of shape found in these style bottles: Given the wide span of production, the dating of this large class of sauce bottles can not be done based on shape alone.
The latter is usually not possible unless the example has the original labels or is embossed, a rare occurrence. Generally speaking, ketchup bottles are relatively tall and narrow a typical height of at least 3 times the body or base diameter and have a moderately narrow mouth or bore for the size of the bottle.
The most common styles like most of the examples pictured here also have a long gradually tapering shoulder to neck portion that is distinctly taller than the body section below it. Flat panels on the body are very typical of bottles from about to at least the midth century and even today on glass ketchup bottles still being used; most ketchup now comes in plastic.
Ketchup bottles were a standard offering from most bottle producing glass companies as evidenced by most late 19th to midth century bottle makers catalogs. The illustration to the right is from the Obear-Nester Glass Co. Click Goldy closure to view a description of this type closure and finish on the Bottle Closures page.
The mouth-blown ketchup bottle pictured to the above left is a very typical general shape for packaging this product during the late 19th through much of the 20th century; it is not that much different than the shape used today for glass bottled ketchup somewhat of a rarity in the U. See the labeled olive oil bottle later on this page. The pictured bottle dates from the to era based on the "improved" tooled external screw thread finish called a "screw top tool finish" by glassmakers , multiple mold air venting marks on the shoulder and possibly in the embossing pattern, a faint amethyst tint to the glass, and cup-bottom mold production - all of which point towards the first two decades of the 20th century Fairmount Glass Works The likely ketchup bottle pictured to the left is representative of the fancier earlier sauce bottle styles and an example that most likely dates from about This style could well have held other types of sauce i.
Click on the following links to view more images of this sauce bottle: A very similar "decanter catsup" was offered by Robert J. Alther San Francisco, CA. In general, like with some other bottles styles e. These bottles look to be the precursor style to the early 20th century examples discussed here. The point here is that there was a lot of variety in shapes used for ketchup, particularly during the period from the s to the s. By the latter time styles began to become a bit more uniform though there was still some variety; see pages of the Illinois Glass Company catalog found on this website at this link: The base is embossed with H.
Click the base view to see the base of this bottle showing the embossing and makers mark. The company assigned an internal number to all their scores of patented bottle styles beginning about Zumwalt This particular bottle was found with a crown cap on it note rust staining as the bead on the rim of this "combination" finish is exactly the right size for a typical sized crown cap. It is not thought original but related to a re-use of the bottle as it had several holes punched in it and was likely re-used as a salt shaker or sprinkle bottle.
This general style of 8-sided catsup bottle was called the "octagon catsup" or "paneled catsup" by bottle makers Illinois Glass Co. Code list courtesy of the H. Other images of ketchup bottles are available by clicking on the following links. However, there are a few observations related to the closure and finish that can assist a bit with dating based on bottle makers catalogs and empirical observations: The club sauce bottle style followed the same design exceptionally close across a wide time span, from brand to brand, and in the different though relatively limited sizes that were produced.
Earlier club sauce bottles will tend to have some variety to the finish, though bottles from the s on almost always have the "classic" three-part club sauce finish Switzer ; Zumwalt The Illinois Glass Company illustration clearly shows that their version came with the distinctive three-part club sauce finish. Sometime around to the secret formula was given to Duncan and a plant for producing the sauce from imported materials was built in the U. The embossed bottles were apparently discontinued in and unembossed, label only bottles of the same distinctive shape used after that.
Aqua glass was also reportedly discontinued in , though may have largely disappeared by the early s in favor of colorless glass Rinker ; Toulouse ; Zumwalt ; Lunn ; Rock Click on the following links for more images of the pictured bottle: This bottle exhibits evidence of early machine manufacture in that it has relatively crude wavy glass, multiple small bubbles, and uneven base glass distribution. Illustration courtesy of California State Parks.
Other similar examples are known to date to the early s Lunn These earlier examples typically have a crudely applied "club sauce" finish, were probably blown in a post-bottom mold, and lack evidence of air venting. These bottles contained Halford's Table Sauce which was advertised in as follows: An absolute Remedy for Dyspepsia. Invaluable to all Good Cooks.
A Nutritious Combination for Children. Even meat sauce claimed medicinal properties in the 19th century! This bottle has a crudely applied club sauce style finish, was blown in a post-bottom mold, and likely had no evidence of mold air venting - all features supporting a manufacturing date of about to These bottles were likely manufactured in England during the noted period as American and English bottle making technology at that time was roughly on a par with each other Zumwalt ; empirical observations.
Click on the following links for more images of this club sauce bottle: The author has observed them in the trash dumps ranging from the fanciest big city hotels to isolated sheep camps in the Great Basin. They came in at least three sizes - half pint probably the most common size , pint, and quart although the two larger sizes at least were likely "scant" sizes, i.
Later mouth-blown bottles are embossed on the base with J D S and usually a mold number like the machine-made bottle discussed above. Some of these late mouth-blown bottles were reportedly made in England - possibly by Aire and Calder or Albion or possibly neither Toulouse An image of a different club sauce style bottle is available by clicking on the following link: Given the wide span of production for this style, i. Please note that these dating parameters pertain to bottles found in the U.
Click midth century snuff bottle to see an example. Mustard was most commonly packaged in stylized "barrel" shaped bottles from the midth century until well into the 20th. Mustard was also thought to be a cure for ailments ranging from congestion to hysteria, snakebite to bubonic plague Gerth Although bottled in a variety of wide mouth, typically squatty bottles, mustard was commonly bottled in barrel shapes for much of the time period covered by this website.
Barrel mustard bottles - based on glassmaker catalogs and the authors empirical observations - are dominated by those with 3 molded rings aka staves, bands above and below the central label area, like the examples pictured here. Other conformations ranging from 2 to at least 6 rings have also been noted as well as some with vertical staves.
Most examples have rings that are separated by a distinct space, like the example above left. Mustard was also packaged in other shapes of ceramic and glass bottles examples discussed below though the barrel shape is the most closely associated with the product Switzer ; Zumwalt See pages of the Illinois Glass Company catalog which offered the standard barrel as well as about a dozen other shapes, including one that was beer mug shaped!
The image to the right above is from the Illinois Glass Company catalog page and shows their barrel mustard offering left barrel bottle available in 6 sizes and what is likely the second most common general shape of that era for containing mustard - the "pot mustard" right bottle.
Barrel mustards are typified by the fairly uniform shapes shown here. Glass makers catalogs, including the Illinois Glass Company, referred to these bottles as "barrel mustards" and offered them sizes ranging from 3 oz. By , the barrel mustards were being offered with screw thread finishes for the "American Metal Cap" by the Illinois Glass Company and cork finish examples were apparently no longer available Illinois Glass Co.
This appears to be so because the surface area against the cork increases allowing more opportunity for the cork to not fit well Lief Interestingly enough, the Illinois Glass Company catalog noted that their barrel mustard style could " Some type of agreement with competitors? The barrel mustard pictured above is an 8 oz. It has a tooled one-part finish more or less a "wide patent" or "bead" type , made from colorless glass with a slight amethyst tint, blown in a cup-bottom mold although with no obvious evidence of mold air venting making the likely production date between and Click on the following links to view more images of this typical size and design bottle: This mold seam ending point marks the furthest point on the "neck" that the outside pads of the finishing tool could reach.
These bottles were usually made of colorless or aqua glass; very rarely in other colors. Click on base view to view an image of the base of this bottle which exhibits a faint blowpipe type pontil scar pointed out in image though the scar has a diffuseness to it that is reminiscent of a sand pontil.
The bottle body has no evidence of air venting and was blown in a post-bottom mold although the side mold seam just barely curls around the heel to join with an apparent post-bottom mold seam. Click s screw top example to see such. Very similar shaped mustard bottles of French origin with pontil scars were found on the Steamship Bertrand which sank in the Missouri River in April These mustard bottles were among the very few bottle types salvaged from that ship that exhibited pontil scars when this author viewed the collection in Iowa recently empirical observations The Bertrand mustards were a bit unusual in that they had 4 closely stacked rings instead of three spaced ones, though the rings were in the usual positions above and below the open label area Switzer It also has a very crudely cracked-off or burst-off finish with just a bit of grinding done to the finish rim to keep from being dangerously sharp.
Western Spice Mills was a St. Gothic style pepper sauce bottles with this company name embossed were found on the Steamship Bertrand and on the Steamboat Arabia which sank in the Missouri River in Although early information on the company is sparse it obviously dated as far back as and is known to have continued in business until at least Switzer ; Zumwalt ; Hawley Aqua was certainly the second most common color for this style, though still lags behind colorless glass which was for some reason the standard "color" of choice for mustard bottling.
This was true even prior to the s when colorless bottles were relatively uncommon as they were more expensive to produce than aqua glass empirical observations.
Other images of barrel and non-barrel mustard bottles are available by clicking on the following links. Many different shapes were used for the packaging of mustard, though the stylized barrel shape is the most closely associated with mustard for much of the time period covered by this website. Unfortunately for dating utility based on shape the barrel mustard style was made a very long time, i. A few type specific general dating observations are possible with barrel mustards: Lauren has been canning and preserving foods that she grows for over 11 years.
Lauren is the Site Director at Growing Gardens. Lex Berman, Growing Gardens: Lex grew up in New Jersey with chickens, sheep, turkeys, and ducks in her backyard.
She moved on to apprentice for two seasons on a small, family farm in rural Maine, where she learned many of the other things one needs to know to successfully grow vegetables besides weeding.
Nadia Kessler, Growing Gardens: In that capacity, she puts into practice all the things we will be talking about in our class. She is excited to see our trees grow as well as taking care of the shrubs and flowers at the Hawthorn site.
Sarah Kell, Growing Gardens: Sarah was born and raised exploring, hiking, and enjoying the outdoors in Colorado. Her love of food, the environment, and the outdoors drew her to a job working on the crew at an organic farm in Boulder. She then managed the farm and its employees for two years. Taylor Arenson, Growing Gardens: Taylor believes in the transformative power that cooking healthy, sustainably sourced ingredients has on individual health, community wellbeing and the environmental.
She developed her love of cooking 6 years ago when she began cooking veggie-based farm to table meals for groups at a Portuguese health retreat.
Nutrition Education and Summer Camp Coordinator. New Gardener Wait List. Fall After School Garden Club. Take advantage of our discounts! Note that discounts cannot be combined. This practical lab will be devoted to making samples of these various products and enjoying the fruits of your labor.
Practical, Seasonal Instruction This four-part series supports both beginner and expert gardeners alike through designing your garden space in early spring, managing pests and diseases in the summer, and maintaining healthy, fertile soil throughout the year. We will include demos both inside and outside weather permitting.