Pollution of the Ocean by Sewage, Nutrients, and Chemicals

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Brain and Nervous System
Also, the chloride-bicarbonate exchanger biological transport protein relies on the chloride ion to increase the blood's capacity of carbon dioxide, in the form of the bicarbonate ion. Comprehension is extremely valuable skill, but that skill is wasted if you never read valuable knowledge and information. It's a rather complex story about the ionisation of the calcium which I did not want to get into atm. For example, aldosterone is important for regulating blood pressure and the sodium potassium ratio in the body. Vitamin D, known as the sunshine vitamin , is one of the most beneficial nutrients for your gut.

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Roles of Vitamin B in Pregnancy

Riboflavin is essential for good eye health and it has the added benefit of giving your skin a fresh, healthy glow — cue the compliments from friends and family about how great you look during your pregnancy! This is also true for your baby. As with all B vitamins, riboflavin is water soluble and therefore not stored in your body; this means you need to get a good, healthy dosage of around 1. You also have a B2 deficiency risk if you are lactose intolerant or anorexic.

Be sure you are eating nutrient-rich foods AND taking a prenatal vitamin. They can provide you with help, suggestions, and resources! Contact a Pregnancy Educator at the American Pregnancy Association by calling M-F 10am-6pm to discuss your concerns, get resources, or to ask questions about your pregnancy. Vitamin B-3 has a whole host of benefits for your body; it can improve digestion, reduce nausea and take the edge off debilitating migraines.

Aim for around 18 mg every day. Therefore it is not recommended for pregnant women to consume doses larger than 18 mg of vitamin B3 when it comes to supplementation. Sunflower and chia seeds are high in B3, along with organ meats and tuna but too much of the wrong tuna during pregnancy can expose you to high levels of mercury.

Below are more natural sources of vitamin B3. Niacin is one vitamin you do not want to overdose on during pregnancy. If you are on a niacin supplement before your pregnancy, you need to speak to your doctor about stopping the supplementation while you are pregnant and taking regular prenatal vitamins.

Pregnancy can do some strange and frustrating things to our bodies, one of which is painful leg cramps. Luckily, vitamin B5 can help to ease these cramps, so aim to consume 6 mg every day. It also has the added benefit of producing important pregnancy hormones. Below are several other sources of B5. Part of its role in the body is to produce norepinephrine and serotonin, two essential neurotransmitters which aid a whole host of metabolic functions.

Vitamin B6 during pregnancy can also help to alleviate nausea and vomiting which are perhaps two of the very worst early side effects of pregnancy. You can find B6 in beans, bananas, papayas, whole grain cereals, and several other natural food sources great for pregnancy smoothies rich in B6. Vitamin B6 in excess amounts can lead to numbness and nerve damage. Be sure you know the amount supplied in your prenatal vitamin and the amount in your diet does not exceed mg per day.

Vitamin B7 deficiencies can cause many symptoms like listlessness, depression, hair thinning, tingling sensations in legs and arms or hallucinations. Too large doses of biotin over long periods of time could lead to rare side effects like allergies, acne or miscarriages during pregnancy. These side effects are rare but always consult with your OBGYN when it comes to prenatal vitamins and your diet.

The proper amount of folic acid reduces the risk of your baby developing neural tube birth defects like spina bifida. You should be consuming — mcg micrograms of vitamin B9 every day throughout your entire pregnancy, which translates to 0.

Lentils, citrus fruits, particularly oranges and grapefruits, are high in folic acid, as are dark green veggies like spinach, broccoli, and asparagus. The majority of prenatal vitamins supply — 1, mg of vitamin B9. Be sure to not consume any more than 1, mg a day, unless you are advised by your doctor.

It is important you understand all the prenatal vitamin limits when choosing your prenatal vitamins. You can find B12 in fortified foods soy or soy milk , fish, poultry, eggs and milk and should aim for around 2. This is similar to problems that may result from low B9 folate. If any of these birth defects run in the family a triple screen test will be necessary. Find a Genetic Counselor in your area. If you believe you may have a vitamin B12 deficiency and are suffering from depression, anxiety, fatigue or insomnia, contact your doctor immediately.

Your doctor may ask you to supplement B12 with folic acid if you are vitamin B12 deficient before pregnancy. Both of these supplements together will help prevent birth defects in developing babies as well as helps combat defects that affect the spine and central nervous system.

Prenatal vitamins should help with most deficiencies, ask your doctor if you have any questions. Enjoy being pregnant, and eat healthy for two your baby needs only about extra healthy calories per day unless otherwise advised by your doctor. Just as inland rivers, lakes, and groundwater can be contaminated by pathogenic microbes, so can coastal waters. Runoff from agricultural areas also contains nutrients such as phosphorus and nitrogen, which can cause overenrichment in coastal regions that ultimately receive the runoff.

The major types of ocean pollutants from industrial sources can be generally categorized as petroleum, hazardous, thermal, and radioactive. Petroleum products are oil and oil-derived chemicals used for fuel, manufacturing, plastics-making, and many other purposes. Hazardous wastes are chemicals that are toxic poisonous at certain levels , reactive capable of producing explosive gases , corrosive able to corrode steel , or ignitable flammable.

Thermal wastes are heated wastewaters, typically from power plants and factories, where water is used for cooling purposes. Radioactive wastes contain chemical elements having an unstable nucleus that will spontaneously decay with the concurrent emission of ionizing radiation. Sewage originates primarily from domestic, commercial, and industrial sources.

In many developed countries, these wastes typically are delivered either to on-site septic systems or to centralized sewage treatment facilities. In both methods, sewage is treated before being discharged, either underground in the case of septic tanks or to receiving surface-water bodies in the case of sewage treatment plants , typically a stream, river, or coastal outlet.

Although sewage treatment facilities are designed to accommodate and treat sewage from their service area, partly treated or even untreated sewage sometimes is discharged.

Causative factors include decayed infrastructure ; facility malfunctions; or heavy rainfall events which overwhelm systems using combined sewers and stormwater drains known as combined sewer overflows. In unsewered areas, improperly designed or malfunctioning septic tanks can contaminate groundwater and surface water, including coastal waters.

In some developed regions e. In developing countries with no on-site or centralized sanitation facilities, no opportunity exists for any type of treatment, and human wastes go directly into surface waters, including the coastal ocean.

Another source of ocean pollution by sewage-related waste is the disposal of biosolids, a semisolid byproduct of the sewage treatment process, often called sludge. Historically, sludge in developed nations was disposed in coastal waters: New York's twenty sewage treatment plants, for example, once disposed their sludge offshore in a region known as the New York Bight.

Although today's environmental regulations in the United States prohibit this practice, sewage sludge is still disposed at sea in some countries.

Disease-causing microbes are the primary human health risk in sewage-contaminated waters, and the main cause of recreational beach closures. Here a sign warns San Diego beachgoers of sewage in the waters. Animal wastes often reach waterbodies via runoff across the land surface, or by seepage through the surface soil layers. Hence, agricultural runoff containing animal wastes does not receive any "treatment" except what is naturally afforded by microbial activity during its transit to a waterbody.

In coastal watersheds, these wastes can flow through river networks that eventually empty into the sea. Nutrients and organic materials from plants, animals, and humans that enter coastal waters, either directly or indirectly, can stimulate a biological, chemical, and physical progression known as eutrophication.

Coastal eutrophication is commonly observed in estuaries , bays, and marginal seas. In a broad sense, coastal eutrophication mirrors the eutrophication of lakes. For example, as increased nutrients stimulate algal and other plant growth, light transmission decreases. The eventual bacterial decay of algae and other plants lowers the dissolved oxygen level in the water.

In extreme cases, all of the oxygen can be removed. Human-accelerated eutrophication known as cultural eutrophication can be triggered by inputs of sewage, sludge, fertilizers, or other wastes containing nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus.

As recently as the s, for example, the New York Bight was essentially lifeless due to oxygen depletion, caused largely by decades of sewage and sludge disposal. As of , Halifax Harbor was still receiving a daily influx of raw sewage, creating serious ecological and public health concerns.

Nutrient-enriched runoff from agricultural land in the midwestern United States is the primary cause of the well-known Gulf of Mexico "Dead Zone. Much of the nitrogen reaching the gulf is from agricultural fertilizers, with lesser amounts from residential fertilizers and other sources. The water of the 20,kilometer 7,square-mile Dead Zone, extending from the mouth of the Mississippi River Basin to beyond the Texas border, has so little oxygen that essentially no marine life exists.

If human-accelerated eutrophication is not reversed, the entire coastal ecosystem ultimately may be changed. Sensitive species may be replaced by more tolerant and resilient species, and biologically diverse communities may be replaced by less diverse ones. Further, nutrient enrichment and the associated eutrophication in coastal waters is implicated in some harmful algal blooms, in which certain species of algae produce biotoxins natural poisons that can be transferred through the food web, potentially harming higher-order consumers such as marine mammals and humans.

Sewage, particularly if partially treated or untreated, brings high microbe concentrations into the ocean. Human diseases can be caused by waterborne pathogens that contact the skin or eyes; waterborne pathogens that are accidentally ingested when water is swallowed; or foodborne pathogens found in the tissues of fish and shellfish consumed as seafood. Beach pollution consequently is a persistent public health problem.

Annually, thousands of swimming advisories and beach closings are experienced because high levels of disease-causing microbes are found in the water. Sewage often is responsible for the harmful microbial levels. Seafood contaminated by sewage-related pathogens sickens untold numbers of people worldwide. Regulatory agencies will close a fishery when contamination is detected.

However, many countries lack regulatory oversight or the resources to adequately monitor their fisheries. Industrial wastes primarily enter coastal waters from terrestrial land-based activities. Industries, like municipalities and other entities that generate wastes, dispose of many liquid wastes through wastewater systems and ultimately to waterbodies , whereas they dispose of their solid wastes in landfills.

The quantity and characteristics of industrial wastewater depends on the type of industry, its water and wastewater management, and its type of waste pretreatment if any before delivery to a wastewater sewage treatment plant.

Because industrial waste frequently goes down the same sewers as domestic and commercial nonindustrial waste, sewage often contains high levels of industrial chemicals and heavy metals e.

Substances that are not removed by wastewater treatment processes are discharged via the treated effluent to a receiving stream, river, or coastal outlet. Inland waters ultimately reach the ocean, carrying with them some residual chemical that are not attenuated, stored, or degraded during their journey through the watershed.

Other land-based sources of industrial pollutants in the ocean are pipeline discharges and transportation accidents, leaking underground storage tanks, and activities at ports and harbors. Intentional, illegal dumping in inland watersheds and in inland waterbodies also can deliver industrial wastes to drainageways, and ultimately to the ocean.

In coastal watersheds, some industries discharge their wastes directly to the ocean. Like industries located inland, these industries must first obtain a permit under the Clean Water Act. Industrial pollutants also can directly enter the ocean by accidental spills or intentional dumping at sea. Wet and dry deposition of airborne pollutants is a sometimes overlooked, yet significant, source of chemical pollution of the oceans. For example, sulfur dioxide from a factory smokestack begins as air pollution.

The polluted air mixes with atmospheric moisture to produce airborne sulfuric acid that falls on water and land as acid rain. This deposition can change the chemistry and ecology of an aquatic ecosystem. The major transport of PCBs to the ocean, for example, occurs through airborne deposition. Industrial chemicals can adversely affect the growth, reproduction, and development of many marine animals.

Pollutants are appearing not only in the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian Oceans and their marginal seas, but also in the more remote and once-pristine polar oceans. An array of contaminants have been found in the flesh of fish and marine mammals in polar regions. In addition to the environmental and ecological issues, there is growing concern over the potential human health impacts in aboriginal communities whose residents depend on fish and marine mammals for daily sustenance.

A major public health concern is the safety of seafood as it relates to the chemical pollution of waters used for commercial and recreational fishing and mariculture.

Vitamin B1: Thiamine