Weston A. Price
Salt , pepper and other spices were prescribed for various ailments in various preparations for example mixed with vinegar. An exclusive scope of practice outlines specific detailed activities and the individuals who qualify to legally provide those activities. Although nitrogen is plentiful in the Earth's atmosphere, very few plants can use this directly. Northrup says when patients "eliminate dairy products for an extended period and eat a balanced diet, they suffer less from colds and sinus infections. Oski explains in Don't Drink Your Milk!
Empowering Professionals To Transform Health Through Nutrition
European Food Safety Authority. US Food and Drug Administration. Other possible agencies with claim guidance: Various institutions have proposed different recommendations for the amount of daily intake of vitamin D. These vary according to precise definition, age, pregnancy or lactation, and the extent assumptions are made regarding skin synthesis of vitamin D.
The dietary reference intake for vitamin D issued in by the Institute of Medicine IOM for North America superseded previous recommendations which gave adequate intake values. The recommendations were formed assuming the individual has no skin synthesis of vitamin D because of inadequate sun exposure.
The reference intake for vitamin D refers to total intake from food, beverages and supplements, and assumes that calcium requirements are being met. The tolerable upper intake level UL is defined as "the highest average daily intake of a nutrient that is likely to pose no risk of adverse health effects for nearly all persons in the general population. Health Canada published recommended dietary allowances RDA and tolerable upper intake levels for vitamin D in  based on the Institute of Medicine report.
Australia and New Zealand published nutrient reference values including guidelines for dietary vitamin D intake in The European Food Safety Authority EFSA in  reviewed the current evidence, finding the relationship between serum 25 OH D concentration and musculoskeletal health outcomes is widely variable. The UK National Health Service recommends babies and young children aged six months to five years, pregnant or breastfeeding women, and sun-deprived elderly people should take daily vitamin supplements to ensure sufficient vitamin D intake.
Non-government organisations in Europe have made their own recommendations. Although vitamin D is not present naturally in most foods,   it is commonly added as a fortification in manufactured foods.
In some countries, staple foods are artificially fortified with vitamin D. In general, vitamin D 2 is found in fungi and vitamin D 3 is found in animals. The vitamin D 2 content in mushrooms and Cladina arbuscula , a lichen, increase with exposure to ultraviolet light. Manufactured foods fortified with Vitamin D include some fruit juices and fruit juice drinks, meal replacement energy bars , soy protein -based beverages, certain cheese and cheese products, flour products, infant formulas , many breakfast cereals , and milk.
While some studies have found that vitamin D 3 raises 25 OH D blood levels faster and remains active in the body longer,   others contend that vitamin D 2 sources are equally bioavailable and effective as D 3 for raising and sustaining 25 OH D.
Vitamin D content in typical foods is reduced variably by cooking. Recommendations on recommended 25 OH D serum levels vary across authorities, and vary based on factors like age. The dietary reference intakes for vitamin D are chosen with a margin of safety and 'overshoot' the targeted serum value to ensure the specified levels of intake achieve the desired serum 25 OH D levels in almost all persons.
No contributions to serum 25 OH D level are assumed from sun exposure and the recommendations are fully applicable to people with dark skin or negligible exposure to sunlight. Vitamin D toxicity is rare. Pregnant or breastfeeding women should consult a doctor before taking a vitamin D supplement. In addition, for products intended for infants, the FDA recommends the dropper hold no more than IU.
One thousand micrograms per day in infants has produced toxicity within one month. Calcitriol itself is auto-regulated in a negative feedback cycle, and is also affected by parathyroid hormone , fibroblast growth factor 23 , cytokines , calcium, and phosphate. Vitamin D overdose causes hypercalcemia, which is a strong indication of vitamin D toxicity — this can be noted with an increase in urination and thirst. If hypercalcemia is not treated, it results in excess deposits of calcium in soft tissues and organs such as the kidneys, liver, and heart, resulting in pain and organ damage.
The main symptoms of vitamin D overdose which are those of hypercalcemia including anorexia , nausea, and vomiting. These may be followed by polyuria , polydipsia , weakness, insomnia, nervousness, pruritus and ultimately renal failure.
Furthermore, proteinuria , urinary casts , azotemia , and metastatic calcification especially in the kidneys may develop. Vitamin D toxicity is treated by discontinuing vitamin D supplementation and restricting calcium intake. Kidney damage may be irreversible. Exposure to sunlight for extended periods of time does not normally cause vitamin D toxicity.
The concentrations of vitamin D precursors produced in the skin reach an equilibrium , and any further vitamin D produced is degraded. Synthesis of vitamin D in nature is dependent on the presence of UV radiation and subsequent activation in liver and in kidney. Many animals synthesize vitamin D 3 from 7-dehydrocholesterol , and many fungi synthesize vitamin D 2 from ergosterol. Click on icon in lower right corner to open. Click on genes, proteins and metabolites below to link to respective articles.
The transformation that converts 7-dehydrocholesterol to vitamin D 3 occurs in two steps. The process is faster in white button mushrooms. Vitamin D 3 is produced photochemically from 7-dehydrocholesterol in the skin of most vertebrate animals, including humans.
Exposure to light through windows is insufficient because glass almost completely blocks UVB light. The darker the skin, and the weaker the sunlight, the more minutes of exposure are needed. Vitamin D overdose is impossible from UV exposure; the skin reaches an equilibrium where the vitamin degrades as fast as it is created.
Sunscreen absorbs or reflects ultraviolet light and prevents much of it from reaching the skin. The skin consists of two primary layers: Vitamin D is produced in the keratinocytes  of two innermost strata, the stratum basale and stratum spinosum.
Vitamin D can be synthesized only by a photochemical process. Phytoplankton in the ocean such as coccolithophore and Emiliania huxleyi have been photosynthesizing vitamin D for more than million years.
Primitive vertebrates in the ocean could absorb calcium from the ocean into their skeletons and eat plankton rich in vitamin D.
Land vertebrates required another source of vitamin D other than plants for their calcified skeletons. They had to either ingest it or be exposed to sunlight to photosynthesize it in their skin.
In birds and fur-bearing mammals, fur or feathers block UV rays from reaching the skin. Instead, vitamin D is created from oily secretions of the skin deposited onto the feathers or fur, and is obtained orally during grooming. Vitamin D 3 cholecalciferol is produced industrially by exposing 7-dehydrocholesterol to UVB light, followed by purification.
Vitamin D 2 ergocalciferol is produced in a similar way using ergosterol from yeast or mushrooms as a starting material. Vitamin D is carried in the bloodstream to the liver, where it is converted into the prohormone calcifediol. Circulating calcifediol may then be converted into calcitriol , the biologically active form of vitamin D, in the kidneys. Whether it is made in the skin or ingested, Vitamin D is hydroxylated in the liver at position 25 upper right of the molecule to form hydroxycholecalciferol calcifediol or 25 OH D.
The conversion of calcifediol to calcitriol is catalyzed by the enzyme hydroxyvitamin D 3 1-alpha-hydroxylase , which is the product of the CYP27B1 human gene. The activity of CYP27B1 is increased by parathyroid hormone , and also by low calcium or phosphate. Following the final converting step in the kidney, calcitriol is released into the circulation.
By binding to vitamin D-binding protein, calcitriol is transported throughout the body, including to the classical target organs of intestine, kidney and bone. In addition to the kidneys, calcitriol is also synthesized by certain other cells including monocyte - macrophages in the immune system. When synthesized by monocyte-macrophages, calcitriol acts locally as a cytokine , modulating body defenses against microbial invaders by stimulating the innate immune system.
The activity of calcifediol and calcitriol can be reduced by hydroxylation at position 24 by vitamin D3 hydroxylase , forming secalciferol and calcitetrol respecively.
American researchers Elmer McCollum and Marguerite Davis in  discovered a substance in cod liver oil which later was called "vitamin A". British doctor Edward Mellanby noticed dogs that were fed cod liver oil did not develop rickets and concluded vitamin A, or a closely associated factor, could prevent the disease. In , Elmer McCollum tested modified cod liver oil in which the vitamin A had been destroyed. He called it vitamin D because it was the fourth vitamin to be named.
In ,  it was established that when 7-dehydrocholesterol is irradiated with light, a form of a fat-soluble vitamin is produced now known as D 3.
Alfred Fabian Hess stated: A meeting took place with J. Bernal , and Dorothy Crowfoot to discuss possible structures, which contributed to bringing a team together. X-ray crystallography demonstrated the sterol molecules were flat, not as proposed by the German team led by Windaus.
In , Otto Rosenheim and Harold King published a paper putting forward structures for sterols and bile acids which found immediate acceptance. In the s, Windaus clarified further the chemical structure of vitamin D. In , American biochemist Harry Steenbock at the University of Wisconsin demonstrated that irradiation by ultraviolet light increased the vitamin D content of foods and other organic materials.
A vitamin D deficiency is a known cause of rickets. His irradiation technique was used for foodstuffs, most memorably for milk. By the expiration of his patent in , rickets had been all but eliminated in the US.
In , after studying nuclear fragments of intestinal cells, a specific binding protein for Vitamin D called the Vitamin D Receptor was identified by Mark Haussler and Tony Norman. In the liver, vitamin D was found to be converted to calcifediol. Calcifediol is then converted by the kidneys to calcitriol, the biologically active form of vitamin D.
The vitamin D metabolites, calcifediol and calcitriol, were identified by competing teams led by Michael F. There is considerable research activity looking at effects of vitamin D and its metabolites in animal models, cell systems, gene expression studies, epidemiology and clinical therapeutics.
These different types of studies can produce conflicting evidence as to the benefits of interventions with vitamin D. They suggest, for some people, reducing the risk of preventable disease requires a higher level of vitamin D than that recommended by the IOM. Until such trials are conducted, the implications of the available evidence for public health and patient care will be debated".
Some preliminary studies link low vitamin D levels with disease later in life. Vitamin D deficiency is widespread in the European population. Apart from VDR activation, various alternative mechanisms of action are under study, such as inhibition of signal transduction by hedgehog , a hormone involved in morphogenesis. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Vitamin D disambiguation. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. The Journal of Nutrition.
Retrieved 6 June American Association for Clinical Chemistry. Retrieved June 23, A metabolite of vitamin D active in intestine". Vitamin D and cardiometabolic outcomes".
Annals of Internal Medicine. University of California, Riverside. Retrieved January 24, Molecular vitamin D mediated mechanisms". Journal of Cellular Biochemistry. Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology. Retrieved July 9, The New England Journal of Medicine. The British Journal of Nutrition. Nutrition Through the Life Cycle.
The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 4: Calcified Tissue International Review. Journal of Tropical Pediatrics. The Proceedings of the Nutrition Society. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics. Archived from the original on June 8, Retrieved August 24, The Nutrition Desk Reference. Melanie 1 February How Milk Became America's Drink. A systematic review and meta-analysis". Therapeutic Advances in Musculoskeletal Disease.
Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases Review. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Preventive Services Task Force". A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis".
American Journal of Epidemiology Review. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. Journal of Clinical Virology. Topics in Antiviral Medicine. International Journal of Epidemiology. The American Journal of the Medical Sciences. Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences.
This implies that the soul is "the person"--their personality, conscience, etc. We feel like there's a ghost of the person you once were inside them -- a philosophical ghost, not an actual spirit. It is, in fact, a demon, but the demon is infused with some of the characteristics of the people that they possess David Fury, Zap2it.
The soul as conscience only. In this theory, vampires are human bodies transformed by a demon physiology. The human conscience soul is gone, banished to the ether , and what remains is the personality of the original human unchecked by conscience and driven by blood lust. Someone asked [Joss] Whedon how he defined "a soul" and how Angel a vampire with a soul differed from the soulless vampires like Spike. Whedon posited that soulless creatures can do good and souled creatures can do evil, but that the soul-free are instinctually drawn toward doing evil while those with souls tend to instinctually want to do good Hercules, Aint' It Cool News , March 4, Even without human souls, Joss's vampires are all too human.
While they are strong and immortal and "dead", they have very familiar weaknesses and urges. How much of the human personality is left over upon vamping? Vampires we knew or knew something about as humans: I think that Joss, despite his declaration that the demon and the mortal are completely separate, has grown enamoured of the idea of a relationship between the mortal and the corresponding vampire.
This is most evident in Dopplegangland where, in typical Joss throw-away style, Angel starts to refute the accepted line before realising the implication for the traumatised Willow and hastily back-tracking When a person is vamped the nature of the evil of the demon possessing them is fixed by their original defining personality trait Vox, Nov 3, See also Angel vs.
Angelus debate, and the moral ambiguity of Angel. While the demon may use the original personality as a base, there's more to it than that. So I think that the demons who inhabit the bodies of those they killed not only take on their personas, amplifying the negative traits, but they also take a special delight in perverting the positive traits.
Evil is not merely happy with causing mayhem; evil loves to corrupt. The purer and holier the evil's object, the more delight evil gains from the corruption of said object. I think that before she was vamped, Drusilla was a chaste girl who was pious, loved small children, plants and animals.
She also had ESP powers which tormented her, as she regarded them as evil. Now, she is apparently far from chaste, enjoys killing small animals and children, and delights in her ESP powers. Her character has been copied and perverted Pippin, Jun 10 An extension of Pippin's theory by Vox. On becoming an evil thing: After a bit of disorientation, a newly sired vampire soon grasps its place in the world on an intrinsic level. He also retains the memories and personal quirks or habits of the human counterpart, but added to this are the vampire strengths and weaknesses.
This could lead to a complex sense of self-identity, and even bouts with madness as Drusilla illustrated. The sire-ing creation of vampires. Buffy explains the process like this: And then you have to suck their blood. It's like a whole big sucking thing. The vampire who turns a human being into a vampire is known as the " sire " e. It is not quite as simple as Buffy puts it, however. The exchange only turns a human into a vampire if they are near death from the vampire bite. The sire must stop drinking when they feel the human's heart start to slow, and then feed the human their own blood.
What happens when a person is vamped? Free will and becoming a vampire. He's here in town. You can feel him. Vampires and human procreation. Unanswered questions about sire-ing: Are vampires conscious before they wake up a new vampire?
There are distinctly different types of vampires. Some are very "drone-like" with little personality the ones that are just there to carry out tasks for others and some are major players Angleus, Spike, Dru, etc Sententia, Jan 21 Buffyverse vampires are social creatures , living in hierarchies like pack animals.
The leader is often called " the master ", and those who follow him or her are called " minions ". Vampires do not always subordinate themselves to other vampires. They have also been known to follow non-vampire demons and evil humans. Vampire minions pay a heavy price for messing up on the job, e. The Order of Aurelius: Angelus , Drusilla , Spike Angelus and his apt pupils pre Spike and Drusilla and their minions e.
Trick and Lenny, ex-Spike minion Zachary Kralik and vamp-Blair VampWillow and the Mayor's ex-minions Sunday and her lacking lackeys Russell Winters and his human minions Skin-head and his nest o' street vamps Dracula, Renfield, and the three sisters VampHarmony and her minionators Deevak the demon and his vamp thugs Doug Sanders and his vampire pyramid The rebel vampire posse The loan shark and his boys Ul-thar and the vampire cult.
Angel The Gorch family: The invitation to vampires. A vampire can enter a public building --i. Vampires can only come into private residences if they are invited. In addition, the inviter does not have to know they are giving an invitation to a vampire e.
The inviter must be a resident, but not necessarily the owner. Once the invitation occurs, the vampire is always welcome assuming he or she can unlock or break down the door , unless a specific ritual is followed. If they try to enter a residence uninvited , a mystical invisible barrier prevents this, e. The necessity of an invitation does not hold for frat houses Angel in Reptile Boy , dorm rooms Sunday's gang , or hotel rooms , e.
This might have something to do with the occupants' privacy and proprietary rights relative to these different kinds of residences. In The Trial, Angel explains that hotels are not invite-protected because they are public accommodations.
It also does not hold for private clubs e. The necessity of an invitation also does not hold for the Turok-han or "ubervamp". Invitations only seem to work with living humans.
In Lonely Hearts, Doyle says that vampires can enter the private residence of someone who's died , e. Angel tells Wesley entering into residences belonging to another vampire isn't a problem in Somnambulist. Likewise, " Demon lairs. No invitation necessary ," he tells Merle in Blood Money other examples: Spike in Doc's apartment in Forever , Billy's home in Billy.
Why would a woman I've never met even talk to me? Have you looked in the mirror lately? Oh, I guess you really haven't, no. Vampires cannot be seen on reflective surfaces: Buffy can see Lyle Gorch on the escalator, but not in the mirror Bad Eggs. The vamps in the Initiative's demon zoo cast no reflection on the glass of their cells, but the walls behind them do. The origin of the lack of image in mirrors is traced back to the legendary ability of silver to combat evil.
Way back when, mirrors were backed with silver to provide the reflection. Nowadays, I'm pretty certain they come backed with aluminium or something So, it's not the fact that vampires wouldn't show up due to some strange light-trick, it's the fact that mirrors contained silver, their most feared and hated element Kenickie.