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They address a number of key conservation and scientific issues, which relate to the protection of the rare biodiversity in the region. All internships are geared at developing your leadership and role model skills, allowing you to develop a variety of key skills, which can improve your future job prospects.
The eastern Aegean region is home to a large number of marine mammals which are classified either as at risk or data deficient. This habitat is in desperate need of protection, as it is subjected to a wide range of anthropogenic threats. The aim of Archipelagos is to better understand and monitor the habitat structure and population dynamics of cetaceans around the eastern Aegean islands. The Aegean, just like the whole Mediterranean Sea, is influenced by human activities such as shipping, tourism, unregulated fisheries practices and pollution, which threaten the survival of marine mammal populations.
A vital sector of the eastern Aegean economy are the fisheries, which cause an unavoidable interaction between the marine mammals and the fishermen who are after the same prey. The main goals of our research are: Monitoring the habitat use, abundance and distribution of cetaceans, Mediterrenean monk seals and sea turtles. Studying the population structure and its dynamics.
Studying the behavior through visual and acoustic data. Investigating the impact of major threats, such as fishing and tourism, on the cetacean behavior. Our current work includes the following activities: Conducting boat-based surveys to collect data on cetacean abundance, distribution and behavior. Conducting land-based surveys to collect data on cetacean behavior and distribution without interacting with them.
Collecting data about different types of marine vessels, their distance from the focal group, fishing activities and marine debris during the boat and land surveys. Assessing the populations of resident, transient and seasonal cetaceans through photo-ID. Developing an online photo-ID network. Using a hydrophone to collect acoustic data. Creating GIS maps to pinpoint critical habitats and understand the factors threatening them.
Delivering first aid to the animals, rescuing them, performing necropsies and collecting data related to stranded individuals e. The monitoring of marine mammal populations focuses on the sea around Samos and extends to the islands of Ikaria, Fourni, Patmos, Arki and Lipsi.
From the research base of Pythagorio in Samos, land based surveys are also conducted from a number of observational points in different parts of the island.
The boats used by Archipelagos to carry out marine mammal surveys are anchored in Samos Marina, a little port next to the main research base. The main task of the marine mammal team is to monitor the study area through both land and boat-based surveys in order to analyze the abundance, distribution and behavior of marine mammals and turtles.
Data on various human impacts marine vessels, fishing activity, debris are also collected. During surveys, the team is responsible for behavioral data collection, photographing individuals and later cataloging the photograph. All these data are recorded and stored in a database at the main research base for later analysis. During marine mammal pods sightings, the Archipelagos marine mammal team gathers photographic material used for identifying individuals inhabiting the studied area.
To facilitate this process, all pictures are sorted, cropped and named. The identification is done by comparing different morphological aspects of the body and fin, such as patches of color, shape, scars, nicks, notches etc.
Once the individuals have been identified and classified, they are introduced into a photo-ID catalog which includes all the cetaceans spotted so far. As a result of this process, the team can get a better idea of the population size in the study area, compare it along the coming years and identify the social structure and residency pattern of target species.
As a result of this process, the team can get a better idea of the size of the population in the studied area and compare it along the coming years. Mediterranean monk seals are considered to be the second most endangered marine mammals in the world. It is estimated that only individuals remain. One of the most important surviving populations of the species resides along the Greek and Turkish coasts of the Aegean Sea.
Research on monk seal population includes monitoring the nesting and feeding areas as well as assessing the interaction with fisheries. Since the spring of , Archipelagos has been involved in daily monitoring and conservation of a young monk seal which displays a highly unusual behavior, approaching inhabited coastal areas and touristic beaches. In the eastern Aegean, there are no extensive nesting beaches for turtles.
However, numerous sites can be found on the island every summer. At the same time, rich feeding areas are abundant in the region, therefore, turtle encounters occur year round.
By applying the data collected during surveys and fieldwork, we can show the distribution and abundance of different species, as well as hot spots and migration patterns in the sea.
After being notified of a stranding, the team members assess the situation and provide first aid in order to improve the health of the animal. If the individual is already dead, necropsy is carried out to determine the cause of death and to collect samples for analyses for example toxicological, DNA and stomach content.
Through this work, we can gain a better understanding of the factors that threaten the populations of these charismatic animals and take actions that will efficiently protect them. With over 18, km of coastline and one of the largest fishing fleets in Europe, the monitoring of marine activities in Greece is not a simple task. The Aegean Sea supports exceptional biodiversity, including rare and protected marine habitats and species. For over a decade, Archipelagos has been collecting data and monitoring important ecosystems of the region, assessing habitats and populations as well as the different factors impacting them.
Knowledge acquired in this way enables us to develop successful, targeted management and conservation plans. Fisheries have been an activity of vital importance to the island and Greek coastal communities for thousands of years. However, over the past couple of decades, marine resources have become overexploited, frequently through the use of destructive practices. If drastic measures are not introduced, the fishing industry will face the risk of collapse. Posidonia oceanica seagrass meadows play an important role in the ecosystem and provide important services for humans.
They ensure the maintenance of physical, chemical and biological conditions and provide a habitat for many different species, while acting as nursery, hunting and predator areas.
Furthermore, the meadows mediate flow and prevent coastal erosion by stabilizing the seabeds and decreasing the water power and current. Surveys have a wide range of focus, including: Coralligenous reefs are frequently referred to as the best kept secret of the Mediterranean. Because of the lack of awareness, they have been greatly overlooked in terms of conservation, partially due to the lack of efficient research on these habitats in the Aegean.
By producing maps and putting pressure on the authorities, we strive to enforce EU legislation that bans trawling over reefs which causes their irreversible destruction.
Fishermen and scientists have observed an increased influx of invasive species into the Aegean Sea that originates from both the Red Sea and from ballast waters of cargo ships. Aiming to understand the extent of the problem in the Aegean, Archipelagos monitors the biodiversity of shallow, littoral zone ecosystems of the eastern Aegean Sea as well as the interaction of invasive species within the coastal zone ecosystems and fisheries landings.
The data collected enables us to get an understanding of local conditions, ecosystem changes, processes and threats. Projects have a wide range of focus, including: The Mediterranean is considered to be of high risk for major spills from large cargo ships and tankers. However, only a medium level of preparedness to deal with such accidents exists. Research in this field focuses on:. The increasing demand for seafood, along with continued overfishing, have resulted in intensified aquaculture production in the Mediterranean.
Recent aquaculture developments have been carried out with a focus on market demand, creating strong impacts on coastal ecosystems, wild fish stocks and local communities. Archipelagos strives to implement more sustainable aquaculture practices and to assess the impacts of units operating over intensively.
Work in this field includes:. The islands of the eastern Aegean are home to a rich biodiversity of flora and fauna. Thick pine forests, dense oak woods and green riparian valleys linked to rare island freshwater ecosystems can be found here, alongside garrigue and maquis types of vegetation.
Samos is the only island in the Mediterranean where golden jackals can be found and the only place in Greece where Mediterranean chameleons still survive. The island of Ikaria supports an ancient holm oak forest, which is more than years old. Archipelagos initiated its actions with focus on marine research and conservation, but the field of action gradually expanded to cover the terrestrial island habitats, which are also of great environmental importance.
Both marine and terrestrial ecosystems are integral parts of a unified system and effective protection can only be achieved if we treat them as a whole. Samos is the only part of Greece which still supports an established population of the Mediterranean chameleon Chamaeleo chamaeleon. However, threats to this fragile population are increasing drastically due to anthropogenic factors.
In order to monitor the status and the habitat of the chameleon population, the Archipelagos terrestrial conservation team carries out surveys throughout the year. Participating in awareness-raising projects aiming to develop community engagement. Samos is the only Mediterranean island that still supports an established population of the golden jackal Canis aureus.
This study aids in the development of animal exclusion processes in airports around the world, in an ecologically sustainable manner. Other research focuses on regular surveys on a number of sites in order to determine the extent of anthropogenic disturbance on the habits and ecology of the jackals. The small islands of the eastern Aegean are crucial feeding, breeding and wintering grounds for a large number of rare and protected bird species.
The Archipelagos bird research team collects avian data related to marine habitats and threatened wetland habitats in and around Samos island, as well as other eastern Aegean islands. This information is gathered with the purpose of improving site protection and ecological status of these areas, as well as for contributing to educational and public awareness projects.
The islands of the eastern Aegean are home to a rich flora biodiversity, yet our knowledge of these species is still limited. The unique environment of Samos allows for a great assortment of over plants species that cannot be found on any other Mediterranean island, while Ikaria island supports a unique island ancient forests with Holm oak trees that can exceed years old. Unfortunately, these extraordinary flora biodiversity is threatened by numerous factors such as overgrazing, wildfires, logging and diseases.
The island flora team gathers and analyses data on eastern Aegean vegetation, including rare plant species. Archipelagos is also seeking to bring attention to the status of the ancient trees, with the goal of designating them as Monuments of Nature and allowing for the enactment of protection laws. By collecting and analysing data on plant diversity throughout the year as well as threats to Aegean island plant life, Archipelagos will be able to design and implement effective flora conservation strategies.
Bat research is conducted depending on qualifications e. In cooperation with experts, we have managed to identify eleven species of bats on Samos.
With threats such as pesticides, light pollution and loss of habitat connectivity on the rise, there is an increasing need of continuing the research. In the spring of , Archipelagos created the Aegean Seed Bank with the aim of collecting and preserving different kinds of seeds from around the Aegean and promoting their use among local farmers. These seeds are also propagated under suitable conditions and used to present the benefits of traditional, organic agricultural practices.
One of the main efforts of Archipelagos has been the establishment of the first non-governmental, non-profit, independent laboratory in Greece. The Archipelagos laboratory facilitates studies which detect and analyze potential sources of pollution harmful for marine and terrestrial ecosystems. Such contamination can also damage the health of people who live on the islands and in the coastal regions of the eastern Mediterranean.
The Archipelagos laboratory offers local communities the analysis of drinking water, swimming water and soil quality free of charge. Analyses are being performed with the aim of detecting pesticide residues in plant tissues, final products e. Potential microbial contamination of vegetables is also being assessed. Other analyses include determining the pharmacological potential of marine organisms. The Archipelagos laboratory is located in the Archipelagos research base on Samos and a smaller lab unit operates in the Archipelagos research base on Ikaria.
In addition, an onboard lab is currently being developed on the Archipelagos research boat, Pinelopi. Plastic is everywhere around us: In the global plastic production exceeded million tons.
Given the natural and socioeconomic importance of the area, plastic pollution poses a serious threat to both marine and human life. Microplastic fiber content is collected, filtered and quantified through microscope analysis from samples of: The Archipelagos laboratory analyzes both marine and freshwater samples, defining the content of microbes, nutrients and other chemical compounds.
The aim is to assess the safety of local potable water, groundwater and swimming water in order to protect human health as well as the environment. All of the techniques used in the Archipelagos laboratory are certified and produce scientific, reliable results. Further analyses which require resources beyond these currently available at the Archipelagos laboratory are undertaken at partner university laboratories. Archipelagos provides analyses of drinking water on various islands of the Aegean, focusing especially on the islands where the local authorities do not conduct regular monitoring.
In most places drinking water can originate from different sources, hence the risk of pollution caused by nearby anthropogenic activities and natural rock erosion. On small islets and islands of the Aegean, where the water resources are limited and potable water is transported to people via water tankers, the quality of the water can differ with each shipment delivered.
The Archipelagos laboratory provides local island communities with water quality analyses in order to ensure that they have free, safe access to drinking water. In addition, Archipelagos tests the water in regions where the contamination of groundwater is possible.
When sources of pollution are detected, Archipelagos collaborates with local, national and EU authorities in order to eliminate them.
The Archipelagos laboratory supplies data on swimming water quality at various beaches and informs local authorities, communities and visitors whether the waters are safe for them and their children to swim in or not.
In many places around the Greek coastline, such samples are not regularly collected by the national authorities. Even when these tests are conducted, the results are not shared with the local communities.
Our chemical water analyses are carried out using the photometric method certification ISO Growing healthy and productive crops requires good soil quality.
If your soil is poor, you can selectively add the nutrient that is lacking from your soil for the specific crop you are growing in place of adding chemical fertilizers.
On the basis of this principle, the Archipelagos laboratory team offers free analyses of soil quality for farmers who are also advised of the nutrient content of their soil and of natural methods of replenishing any nutrients that are missing. Our laboratory provides analyses of soil samples for the following parameters: Ammonia, calcium, chloride, free chlorine, cooper, iron, pH, magnesium, manganese, nitrate, nitrite, phosphate, phosphorus.
Archipelagos conducts research on pesticide residues in order to assess environmental effects of the use of pesticides and herbicides in farming practices and to inform consumers and farmers about these effects.
Using the results of our analyses, we create awareness campaigns that explain the health hazards of pesticides and encourage farmers to choose organic methods in place of chemical agents. Our laboratory team collects samples from olive groves, vineyards, vegetable gardens and greenhouses. I thought this article was going to be about lead. Long simmering can draw lead out of the bones. Lead is a toxin. No amount is safe. Can anybody please advise a recommended of slow-cooker time to cook chicken bones, to achieve the balance of enough time for the nutrients, but not too much time to bring out too much glutamic acid?
I cook mine 24 hours in a slow cooker, but seems like this is too much, and too dangerous. We do not have any data about the length of time to cook chicken bones in a crock pot and avoid a large amount of glutamic acid. The tests were not done on crock pot stock. The main challenge that I find with making stock in crock pots is the difficulty in bringing the bones to a boil quickly, which you want to do in order to skim any scum the forms before putting the stock down to a simmer.
So…I often advise my students to bring the stock to a boil on the stove and skim and discard the scum and then put into the crock pot to simmer. If you do that, then I would continue to err on the side of less time than more; perhaps hours for chicken. If you do, then back down the number of cooking hours. Funny, the finding about the glutamic acid was a by-product of testing that was done to ascertain levels of arsenic in both long and short cooked broth.
My thought is to stay away from long cooked bone broth. Slow and low…but not too long. Thank you for your question. All we know is that the glutamic acid is extremely high in long-cooked bone broth. It contains approximately 3x as much as in short cooked.
Whether it is from organic sources or not, it seems to be the high level that can trigger nervous system symptoms. The issue, as far as I can tell, is two-fold: Meat Stock, again, is cooked a short period of time. So if you were to make Meat Stock in your crock pot, and do it for a relatively short period of time, say, 1 hour on high and 6 or so hours on low, you are probably fine. The reason I write about Meat Stock is because there is a lot of misunderstanding and misinformation out there.
Part I-Meat Stock and Bone Broth…because there is a real problem of people trying to implement the GAPS diet and causing their seizure-prone children to have seizures due to the amount of long-cooked bone broth they are feeding them.
Natasha is clear in her book that Meat Stock is the stock that is used on the Intro Diet, and only Meat Stock is used during all six stages.
She is also clear that the Intro is where you heal and seal the gut. Bone Broth is only used AFTER the gut is healed and sealed, that is, after the Intro is completed, which could take anywhere from 2 months to 2 years or more, depending on the severity of the case.
Natasha this past weekend, and she was clear throughout her training that Meat Stock is what heals and seals the gut, and it is the only stock to be used during Intro. We are not sure why everyone misses this in her book, as it is written there, along with recipes. Natasha is very grateful that I have put together my book on Meat Stock and am doing my best to educate people on this point. If you are interested in more information on Meat Stock, you may wish to take a look at my book.
You can find it here on Selene River Press https: It was reviewed by both Dr. Natasha and Sally Fallon Morell, with a foreward by Dr.
Bone broth certainly has its benefits and is a healer! I am only concerned about the high concentration of glutamic acid in long-cooked broth made of bones…because of its ability to trigger nervous system symptoms—especially seizures in those who are prone to them.
For those with a leaky gut which, unfortunately, is the majority of Americans at this time , Meat Stock is the recommended stock that can heal it and seal it. Once the gut is healed, many symptoms will be relieved and one can go on to bone broth if desired. Also, we have to remember that the difference in glutamic acid was just discovered in testing about 2 years ago, when we were looking for arsenic levels in chicken broth—long cooked and short cooked.
So this information is new and must be taken into consideration, I think, given the amount of disorders that stem from a leaky gut and could be healed by a protocol with short-cooked Meat Stock playing a large role. I do not recommend pressure cookers for any cooking. The extreme pressure and temperature severely denatures the protein in the food. While it may look like a good result, it is not a healthful result.
In traditional foods, slow and low wins the race. No peoples in history ever cooked this way. Also, in this case, we are working to make a therapeutic, healing elixir for the lining of the small intestine. How the the primitive people make their broth or stock? How long did they cook it for? How did they mitigate against high levels of glutamatic acid?
What about a gelatin product like Great Lakes Gelatin? I do not have information about how long they cooked their bones. My belief is that leaky gut and its related problems are a 20th century phenomenon. High levels of glutamic acid are not a problem when one has a healthy GI tract…when the small intestine is whole and functioning well.
In terms of gelatin, my understanding is that most gelatin is produced by cooking bones long, which would mean high levels of glutamic acid. However, it looks like Great Lakes Unflavored Beef Gelatin is not high from their amino acid comparison on the can.
The best answer I can give is that if high levels of glutamic acid could be problematic for the brain, that is, trigger seizures and other nervous system symptoms in those who have leaky brain membranes , I would probably opt for Meat Stock instead of Bone Broth.
I have no data, just connecting the dots, here. Meat Stock is much easier to make, takes less time to make, is a meal in a pot, and will provide a tremendous amount of nutrients. Leaky gut may not be the main reason people react to the glutamate, it may be due to polymorphisms in the GAD genes — the GAD enzymes helps to balance GABA and glutamate and if there is a polymorphism there, or co-factors such as magnesium and B6 are not sufficient, then an imbalance between GABA and glutamate is likely.
GAD status can be checked with a 23andme test and then run the results through Livewello or similar. Thank you for your message and for sharing this information. I am aware that there are other reasons that people may react to glutamate. My work is currently focused on leaky gut…what causes it, and how to heal it…and bringing to light a challenge that is being experienced by those who are drinking long-cooked bone broth.
Many people are not aware of the differences between bone broth and meat stock, and the glutamate issue. I have epilepsy and recently have been having seizures again after 7 years with none. I was told it was excellent for my health and now this. Hi Kylie, I am sorry to hear. The information that long-cooked bone broth contains a high percentage of glutamic acid is fairly new. Certainly, the majority of people do not know about it or its ability to trigger seizures and other neurological symptoms.
That was the catalyst for me writing my book on Meat Stock and Bone Broth—too many people without this very important information. You can find the book in the Shop here at Selene River Press. I would move to short-cooked meat stock, which does the healing and has a much lower glutamic acid content. The GAPS diet Gut and Psychology Syndrome nutritional protocol is very healing for all symptoms, especially those that are neurological.
I would suggest that you check it out! I suffer from IBS and leaky gut and was told to take l-glutamine supplement for gut healing, but would it have the same effect? I personally did have a reaction to bone broth anxiety, agitation, dizziness and will now only try meat broth.
How long is really long? I make my bone broth in the pressure cooker with vinegar added in an hour and half to 2 hours, remove and crush up softened bones and cook another half hour. Why should we have to pay for a recipe? If you are really concerned for people, you would just offer up how to make it, not seek to profit off of people you know are struggling for answers.
The extremely high temperature plus the extremely high pressure denatures the protein molecule structures too much. Also, I just look to traditional peoples and cooking methods, and it has always been slow and low. Thank you for your comment and question. I do know that practitioners often prescribe a supplement of L-glutamine for gut healing. The book is a lot more than a recipe…it is the culmination of years of study and work, specific to this protocol.
It was written with the desire to help a lot of people who are not clear on the difference between bone broth and meat stock, to save them time and help speed their recovery.
Also, there are a lot of recipes for both bone broth and meat stock online for free in fact — right on this blog: And finally, in our world, money is what it takes to put food on the table for our children and a roof over our heads. Writing is one of the ways I do this. Would crushing beef bones with a hammer make it easier to cook for a shorter amount of time to pull nutrients?
I am 20 years old. I consume goat bone broth times a month to especially strengthen my bones. It takes me 4 hours to cook them in a pressure cooker until the bones soften and everything dissolves and yes, it gels. My bones started to make some noise and felt weak which concerned me. So, would bone broth really help me strengthen my bones, joints and ligaments?
I was taking l-glutamine and I ended up having severe reactions to it. It gave me dermatitis on my face and I wanted to kill myself.
I was very angry. I finally figured out that it was the glutamine causing both of these things and 3 days after stopping I was feeling much better and the dermatitis resolved itself. No, that is earning a living from your work. There is a chart in the book that shows the analysis that was done of short cooked meat stock and long cooked bone broth —three samples of each sent to a lab.
We were looking for arsenic, actually, as there were some questions about the presence of arsenic in long cooked bone broth. The ability of glutamic acid to trigger neurological disorders has been documented by Russell Blaylock. The Taste that Kills, is a good place to start. Also, I and others who work with children and adults with neurological disorders have seen them experience those symptoms when they drink long cooked bone broth. Those extremes will denature fragile protein molecules.
Yes, bone broth and meat stock will help strengthen your bones, joints and ligaments, because they contain the building blocks your body needs to build and repair-gelatin and collagen. However, remember that neither is very high in minerals, though those that are contained in bone broth are in an electrolytic form, which makes them very easy for your body to utilize.
Bones need calcium, and calcium that the body can absorb. No other type of calcium can be utilized by the body…. Weight-bearing exercise is very important for strong bones. One must take in calcium that the body can absorb raw dairy, cultured dairy such as yogurt, creme fraiche or kefir , and then drive it into the bones with weight-bearing exercise.
Hi Loren, Thank you for sharing your story. Yes, our bodies can have extreme reactions to glutamine. Glad you figured it out and things are better! My 16 mo old has all kinds of food allergies that result in severe red, itchy skin from the neck to the toes. Even despite all the eliminations his and mine , we are still weeding through. My latest discovery is that he might also be HIT, histamine intolerant.
As you probably know long cooked bone broth and all fermented foods are very high in histamine. Do you know if meat stock cooked as you recommend it is NOT high in histamine? Your assertion about the pressure cooker is incorrect. Also, my understanding is that protein starts to denature at degrees.
Slow cookers, ovens and stove tops all denature proteins. The other dark side of bone broth is that the bones come from an animal that wanted to live but instead suffered horrible cruelty and was then brutally murdered. Because science says they do. The only way to not have a negative impact on other living beings is to cease to live.
Hi there Yes, vinegar is used in long cooked bone broth. It is not used in meat stock, because of the amount of meat in the pot. Vinegar acts on the bones, not the meat. Hi Clarissa Thank you for that; I will take a read. I prefer not to cook at high temperature and high pressure. I know our ancestors cooked meat and or bones, or whatever they were cooking slow and low. Since bones are the manufacturers of blood, and since no bones are entirely clean of meat, the impurities are likely blood particles, etc.
Skimming the scum makes for a cleaner broth or stock, if you will. Thank you for the information. I think my son has leaky gut. Then what do they eat? Lots of veggies and most meat has large amounts of glutamic acid…seeds…You name it. Also, studies show it actually is protective from neurotoxicity…. I cook my chicken bone broth for about 4 hours at high pressure then 2 hrs at low in my electric pressure cooker. I use chicken wings which break down quicker than chicken feet.
My broth is beautifully gelatinous when cooled. Will this high-pressure method avoid the glutamic acid problem? I really have no idea. We have not done any tests on pressure cooked bone broth so I cannot say. If I find out any info, I will surely post about it! Thank you for your message. I do not know if the short cooked meat stock is low in histamines, but I would think it would be.
I know GAPS can be hard with those with histamine intolerance, but there are ways to implement it low-histamine. I would be happy to talk with you about it. If you would like to, I offer a complementary conversation on my Wellness Consultations page, http: I am not clear about your question…who are you referring to? I do well on the meat broth and I really enjoy it. I have watched some people on you tube cooking bone broth and then pressure canning it for there pantry is that ok ,,,,,,And they use it for anything calling for beef broth is that ok.
Negatives can perhaps be related to food handling and not obtaining clean bones to use for broth. Food handling is crucial. Boiling to bring broth back up to a clean state is important after the broth has been refrigerated. Making sure the glass container used to store the broth is sterile is also something to be considered. The devil is in the details! So my daughter had brain cancer in and I would assume I should not be giving her bone broth then? Is meat broth still healthy and if so are there benefits?
If so can you tell me some of them? Would you suggest store bought, powdered collagen? Can you please provide the research that is the basis for your claims? When I mentioned it to two different doctors, one laughed and the other told me it was all in my head. I know a ton of folks who are regularly drinking bone broth to actually heal the gut and have autoimmune issues. This is the staple food of the GAPS gut and psychology syndrome and I have never, ever heard of anything like this.
Is there any data? Do you have a source for these adverse events? Is this really a thing? My wife drinks this daily and we used to drink it several times a day when we were doing very strict GAPS.
Yes, it is very important to bring bone broth back up to a boil after it has been refrigerated. Skim and discard any scum that rises to the top and then proceed with drinking or using in a recipe! Thank you for your message and question. The study was done by Kim Schuette of Biodynamic Wellness. You can see the study here: The research about glutamic acid and its affect on brain function as an excitotoxin was done by Dr. Russell Blaylock, a board certified neurosurgeon years ago.
The Taste that Kills. Thank you for your message! I understand your confusion! Natasha Campbell-McBride has read, approved, and endorses my book on Meat Stock and Bone Broth—what they are, how to make them, and when they are used.
My hope is that my work will help to inform those CGPs that took the training prior, so that they can start letting their patients know about Meat Stock and its role in the Intro Diet, which, according to Dr.